Difference between communicating and non communicating hydrocephalus ppt

These descriptions can vary somewhat, though, depending on who you speak to or what sources you reference. Terminology. Hydrocephalus is a symptom of an underlying brain disorder resulting in either ; Impaired absorption of CSF within the subarchnoid space communicating hydrocephalus ; Obstruction to the flow of CSF within the ventricles non-communicating hydrocephalus ; Any imbalance of. Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain. Path CNS Robbins Outline 4 Owl Club Review Sheets o Mega‐ (rare) and Micro‐ (common) encephaly Relates to the size of the head and brain, mega = big, micro = small Assoc. Internal/non-communicating hydrocephalus is where one of foramina for passage of CSF into ventricles is blocked. Transcranial. Caregiver The caregiver role has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologically while preserving the client's dignity. The lumbar cistern is a region of: difference in weakness between face/arm & leg localizes the injury to dominant frontal lobe cortex & white matter. 2. A brain aneurysm is when a bulge in a blood vessel of the brain has. & * 5 Hydrocephalus terminology ` It is important to understand the difference between Communicating and Non-communicating hydrocephalus. If the CSF pathway is open from start to finish, meaning CSF can travel freely from the choroid plexus to the arachnoid granulations, then you have no obstruction and a communicating hydrocephalus

Non-communicating hydrocephalus - also called obstructive hydrocephalus - occurs when the flow of CSF is blocked along one or more of the narrow passages connecting the ventricles. One of the most common causes is aqueductal stenosis, a narrowing of the aqueduct of Sylvius, a small passage between the third and fourth ventricles in the middle. Communicating hydrocephalus can be defined as the type of hydrocephalus that occurs when the flow of cerebrospinal fluid is blocked, after having exited the ventricles. The term communicating refers to the fact that the cerebrospinal fluid is able to circulate at the level of the ventricles, as the blockage is located in another place and.

Terminology. Communicating hydrocephalus is commonly used as the opposite of obstructive hydrocephalus which leads to much unnecessary confusion, as most causes of communicating hydrocephalus do have an element of obstruction to normal CSF flow / absorption. For a discussion of this terminology please refer to the more general article on hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus merely denotes an increase in the volume of CSF and thus of the cerebral ventricles (ventriculomegaly).. Although hydrocephalus is typically referred to as either being obstructive or communicating, this can lead to confusion as to the underlying cause of ventriculomegaly as the terms are referring to different aspects of the underlying pathophysiology (namely why and where)

Non-communicating extraventricular hydrocephalus. The term of communicating hydrocephalus is now controversial: the prevailing thought that nearly all hydrocephalus is obstructive (non-communicating) has limited the entities that fall under this heading to normal pressure hydrocephalus, low pressure hydrocephalus, and CSF overproduction would cause communicating hydrocephalus. 2. Acute aseptic (viral) meningitis: lymphocyte infiltrate; mild (HSV-1) produces the most common non-epidemic form with high mortality levels. Acyclovir is an effective treatment, leading to reduction in the The difference between an abscess and granuloma is determined by pathological examination Non-communicating (Obstructive) Hydrocephalus - Abnormal collection of CSF, with flow obstructed within the ventricular system. The most common site of obstruction is the cerebral aqueduct, connecting the third and fourth ventricles. By Lucien Monfils [CC-BY-SA-3.-2.5-2.-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons Hydrocephalus is a condition in the brain in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, increasing the intracranial pressure within the skull. Hydrocephalus is often treated with a shunt, which allows the excess CSF to drain to a different part of the body Hydrocephalus is a condition in which an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs within the brain. This typically causes increased pressure inside the skull.Older people may have headaches, double vision, poor balance, urinary incontinence, personality changes, or mental impairment.In babies, it may be seen as a rapid increase in head size. Other symptoms may include vomiting.

During the last two decades, flow-sensitive MRI techniques have been increasingly applied to quantitatively and qualitatively assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics [].CSF flow MRI can be used to discriminate between communicating hydrocephalus and non-communicating hydrocephalus, to localise the level of obstruction in obstructive hydrocephalus, to determine whether arachnoid cysts. Communicating hydrocephalus occurs when full communication occurs between the ventricles and subarachnoid space. It is caused by overproduction of CSF (rarely), defective absorption of CSF (most often, includes conditions such as intracranial hemorrhage or meningitis resulting in damage to the arachnoid granulations, where CSF is reabsorbed. The International Infant Hydrocephalus Study (IIHS), gathering data from more than 20 hospitals around the world, compared the effectiveness of shunts versus endoscopic third ventriculostomies (ETVs). This study started in 2005 and these are the five year outcomes. The study enrolled children under 2 years old who had hydrocephalus due to. Hydroceles can be of two types - Primary or Secondary. Primary if fluid accumulates due to a congenital defect and secondary if it is due to irritation of the Tunica Vaginalis [19-21] This further affirms the role of PCMRI in the differentiation of communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. Surprisingly, we observed significantly lower flow parameters in Group II (meningitis without hydrocephalus), wherein the CSF peak velocity and stroke volume were 1.71 ± 0.85 cm/s and 9.09 ± 6.91 µl

Communicating hydrocephalus could be created in animal models by merely increasing the amplitude of the intraventricular CSF pulsations, leaving the mean IVP unchanged [37-39] but creating a transient minimal pressure gradient between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space (transmantle gradient) of approximately 0.5 mm HG [40-43] Several studies have shown that the progression of communicating hydrocephalus is associated with diminished cerebral perfusion and microangiopathy. If communicating hydrocephalus similarly alters the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and cerebral blood flow, both may be related to intracranial mechanoelastic properties as, for instance, the volume pressure compliance Research 101: An Explanation of Clinical Trials Design. In Research 101: Levels of Evidence, we discussed criteria that determines the value of a clinical study. Here we will discuss how the initial trial design can dictate the strength of a study. Clinical trials are either Experimental or Observational Hydrocephalus as an imaging finding is commonly interpreted as potentially representing normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) largely because of the favorable therapeutic implications [].However, NPH is a relatively rare disorder, recently calculated to be 1.19/100,000/year, and reduced further to .36/100,000/year when defined as sustained improvement at 3 years after ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Hydrocephalus was identified in 17 of 22 (77%) patients at baseline and 18 of 27 (67%) on day 60; the proportion with communicating hydrocephalus fell from 13 of 17 (77%) at baseline to five of 18 (28%) after 60 days of treatment. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups

Hydrocephalus - SlideShar

Module Hydrocephalus.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. en Change Language Congenital hydrocephalus: Congenital hydrocephalus in infant & young children can be classified as communicating & non - communicating. 1-free communication between ventricles & basal cisterns. 2- obstruction to flow of csf is in the subarachnoid space or basal cisterns. 3- this is due to meningeal irritation by hemorrhage ,infection or trauma Pathologic processes cause dilation (hydrocephalus) or compression/shift. Communicating vs. Non-communicating. Communicating hydrocephalus is first evident in dilation of the temporal horns (normally small, slit-like). The lateral, IIIrd, and IVth ventricles need to be examined for effacement, shift, and blood

Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet National Institute of

Hydrocephalus The ventricles are dilated to a greater degree than the subarachnoid spaces Causes include an obstructing mass (non-communicating hydrocephalus) or a failure of CSF resorption in the arachnoid granulations that may not function properly after a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage or meningitis: this form is known as communicating Hydrocephalus prior to closure of cranial vault results in enlarged head and minor increase in ICP. Hydrocephalus after closure of cranial vault results in normal head and large increase in ICP, regardless of communication. Non‐ Communicating Flow obstructed, proximal = enlarged, distal = shrunke HYDROCEPHALUS. Condition present at birth or resulting from other cause in which there is an abnormal amount of CSF volume in the intracranial cavity. The fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain; 36 TYPES OF HYDROCEPHALUS. INTERNAL NON-COMMUNICATING ; Blockage within the ventricles keeping the CSF from going to the subarachnoid space.

Gendered Communication: Differences In Communication Styles. Gendered communication refers to a specialized area that focuses on the differences in how men and women communicate. It's an interesting field made even more complicated by the changing definitions of gender in the 21st century. Most research into gendered communication focuses on. Nontraumatic (or spontaneous) intracranial hemorrhage most commonly involves the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. This entity accounts for at least 10% of strokes and is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Important causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms. There are several different forms of hydrocephalus: communicating hydrocephalus, non-communicating hydrocephalus or obstructive hydrocephalus, internal hydrocephalus, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and benign hydrocephalus. (For more information on this disorder, choose hydrocephalus as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.

Different Types of Hydrocephalus Advanced Neurosurgery

Hydrocephalus is a symptom of an underlying brain disorder resulting in either ; Impaired absorption of CSF within the subarchnoid space communicating hydrocephalus ; Obstruction to the flow of CSF within the ventricles non-communicating hydrocephalus ; Any imbalance of secretion absorption causes an increased accumulation of CSF in the ventricles Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain. The excess fluid increases the size of the ventricles and puts pressure on the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column. But the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid associated with. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is called normal pressure because despite the excess fluid, CSF pressure as measured during a spinal tap is often normal. As brain ventricles enlarge with the excess CSF, they can disrupt and damage nearby brain tissue, leading to difficulty walking, problems with thinking and reasoning, and loss of bladder control Verbal vs Nonverbal Communication There are many differences between the two forms of communication, namely verbal and nonverbal communication. In some places, non-verbal communication assumes more significance than verbal communication and in other places it is the vice versa Significant differences between categorical data were determined using the Pearson chi-square test. Associations between observations were determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Significance was accepted at the 0.05 level. Eide PK, Pripp AH: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in non-communicating hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus: production of CSF > absorption r/ obstruction of flow within the ventricles (non-communicating) or absorption is compromised within the subarachnoid space (communicating) - if no 4 th ventricle is visible on scan, then blockage is at Sylvius aqueduct, the hydrocephalus is noncommunicating and LP will not help, - if 4 th ventricle. Hydrocephalus . Hydrocephalus is a term that describes the abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain. It can be broadly divided into communicating (i.e. non-obstructive) and non-communicating (i.e. obstructive). An early sign of hydrocephalus on a CT head is dilation of the temporal horns Hydrocephalus, or excess fluid in the brain, causes slightly different symptoms depending on the type of hydrocephalus and the age of the person affected. Hydrocephalus from birth. Babies born with hydrocephalus (congenital hydrocephalus) often have distinctive physical features Hydrocephalus is classified as obstructive (non-communicating) when there is an obstruction to its flow from the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space; or as communicating when such obstruction is not present. Obstructions are most likely to occur at narrow passages such as the interventricular foramen, the cerebral aqueduct, the median. As the disease advances, the person with Alzheimer's may rely on nonverbal communication, such as facial expressions or vocal sounds. Around-the-clock care is usually required in this stage. Tips for successful communication: Approach the person from the front and identify yourself. Encourage nonverbal communication

Hydrocephalus Johns Hopkins Medicin

  1. es the value of a clinical study.Here we will discuss how the initial trial design can dictate the strength of a study.. Clinical trials are either Experimental or Observational.. Experimental. In Experimental studies, researchers assign patients to an experimental or control group
  2. imal pressure gradient between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space (transmantle gradient) of approximately 0.5 mm HG [40-43]
  3. In some cases of non-communicating hydrocephalus, a direct connection can be made between one of the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, allowing drainage without a shunt. M Installation of a shunt requires lifelong monitoring by the recipient or family members for signs of recurring hydrocephalus due to obstruction or failure of the shunt
  4. The two types of hydroceles are noncommunicating and communicating. Noncommunicating. A noncommunicating hydrocele occurs when the sac closes, but your body doesn't absorb the fluid
  5. ing the level of CSF obstruction (). 44 CT is not a useful tool as panventricular dilatation occurs in both communicating and noncommunicating types of hydrocephalus. 44 Communicating hydrocephalus can be treated with medical therapy consisting of 50 mg/kg/d.
  6. Intracerebral hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke but is associated with a significantly high mortality and morbidity. Intracerebral hemorrhage frequently affects the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebral lobes, pons, and cerebellum. Hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are major causes of intracerebral.
  7. The second most common reason for being sued for negligence in neurosurgery is a problem related to hydrocephalus management (the first being spinal surgery!). However, the good news is that the overall standard of care for patients with hydrocephalus appears to have greatly improved over the last 10 years with the advent of better facilities for investigation, new approaches to treatment, and.

The diagnosis of a hydrocele is generally made clinically. An apt description of a hydrocele surrounding a palpable (something that can be felt) testis would be that of a small water balloon containing a peanut. The differences between communicating and non-communicating hydroceles described above help to support the suspected diagnosis Hydrocephalus is a build-up of fluid in the brain. The excess fluid puts pressure on the brain, which can damage it. If left untreated, hydrocephalus can be fatal. Symptoms of hydrocephalus. The damage to the brain from hydrocephalus can cause a wide range of symptoms, including: headache Hydrocephalus Causes. The three main causes of hydrocephalus are: A blockage.Tumors, cysts, birth defects, and other objects in the brain can block or affect the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid Ependymal denudation was present, but it appeared subsequent to severe ventriculomegaly, suggesting that it is a secondary effect rather than a cause. Furthermore, aqueductal stenosis was not manifest at any time nor were any obstructions observed within the ventricles; thus this model appears to be one of communicating hydrocephalus. 12

Neurons are electrically excitable cells in the human bodies that communicate with other cells through specialized connection referred to as Synapses. Each neuron has a cell body with many minute branched short protoplasmic extensions referred to as dendrites and an elongated unbranched protoplasmic extension referred to as Axon. What Are Myelinated Nerve Fibers Communicating hydrocephalus is a common complication, because the inflammatory debris may impede the flow and reabsorption of CSF. 8 The ventricles become distended. Transependymal migration of CSF appears as high signal intensity areas surrounding the portions of the ventricles that abut white matter

Video: Communicating Hydrocephalus - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatmen

Communicating hydrocephalus Radiology Reference Article

  1. a for passage of CSF into ventricles is blocked. This leads to dilation of ventricle. When subarachnoid villi are blocked, it is known as communicating or external hydrocephalus. This can lead to atrophy of brain, mental weakness and convulsions
  2. Recurrence of any of the initial hydrocephalus symptoms; Other treatments. Some people with hydrocephalus, particularly children, may need additional treatment, depending on the severity of long-term complications of hydrocephalus. A care team for children may include a: Pediatrician or physiatrist, who oversees the treatment plan and medical car
  3. View Care of the Child with Neurologic Disorders _ School of Nursing Curriculum.pdf from NUR 1225 at Miami Dade College, Miami. Care of the Child with Neurologic Disorders INTRODUCTION For the nin
  4. Comparisons between groups were accomplished using Kruskal-Wallis-Tests followed by Dunn-Bonferroni posthoc-tests and Bonferroni adjustment to α = 0.0167. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparisons within groups, between anterior-posterior (AP) vs. medio-lateral (ML) directions
  5. Ultrasound is a safe, quick, non-invasive & repeatable modality, has a definite role in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. However, the ultrasound waves cannot penetrate the bony skull. It is still used in neonatal brain imaging where the open anterior fontanelle is the acoustic window. Hence, its use is limited between the age group 6 months-2 years
  6. Aqueductal stenosis is a narrowing of the aqueduct of Sylvius which blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular system.Blockage of the aqueduct can lead to hydrocephalus, specifically as a common cause of congenital and/or obstructive hydrocephalus.. The aqueduct of Sylvius is the channel which connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle and is the narrowest part.
  7. Communicable Diseases / Practice Exam. Exam Instructions: Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. You can skip questions if you would like and come.

A communicating hydrocele can get bigger during the day, and if you gently squeeze it, the fluid will move out of the scrotum and into their belly. Hydrocele Diagnosis When you take your baby to. Multiple motile cilia exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional fluid flow, but how the cells coordinate cilia orientation remains an open question. Takagishi et al. show that a planar cell polarity protein, Daple, regulates microtubule dynamics at the anterior side of ependymal cells, which orients the cilia

Hydrocephalus Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

  1. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurological conditions that affect a person's ability to communicate with others. Get facts and statistics on ASDs here. Learn about symptoms and discover.
  2. Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe form of tuberculosis and often causes critical illness with high mortality. Two primary management objectives are reducing intracranial pressure, and optimising cerebral perfusion, while killing the bacteria and controlling intracerebral inflammation. However, the evidence base guiding the care of critically ill patients with tuberculous meningitis is.
  3. Early intervention starts between birth and 3 years of age and consists of different therapeutic modalities (physical, occupational, behavioral, play, and speech therapies) that help children with talking, walking, participating in the activities of daily life (such as brushing teeth and getting dressed), and interacting with others
  4. imum of for the ventilated Client and their Family and also in order to maximize the Client's and their Family's Quality of Life
  5. • COMMUNICATE WITH TEAM • GET PATIENT TO THE RIGHT PLACE 11 12. 7 13 ED MANAGEMENT: THE GOLDEN HOUR HYDROCEPHALUS AND ELEVATEDICP EVD RECOMMENDEDIN: GCS <9 LARGE MASSEFFECT HYDROCEPHALUS ENLS Version 3.0 -ICH 35 36. 19 37 there was a 10.5% difference in the likelihood of achieving a good functional outcome
  6. hydrocephalus which may lead to raised ICP. The classical distinction between obstructive and communicating hydrocephalus is less useful clinically as the cause of reduced absorption of CSF in communicating hydrocephalus is usually functional obstruction at the arachnoid villi (e.g. by blood or protein)

effective communication and efficient teamwork skills, such as the ones recommended by TeamSTEPPS. The tools and strategies specific to this scenario include: brief, huddle, situation awareness, cross-monitoring, CUS, and the two -challenge rule. Visit AHRQ's website for more information abou Salary differences between schools of medicine and schools of public health for non-clinical PhD faculty. General Practice Research on Infections Network (GRIN 2019) in Leuven, Belgium September 2019 Grigoryan L. Invited presentation: Improving antibiotic stewardship for urinary tract infections in the United States

Article - Imaging of hydrocephalu

Communicating. In the communicating type of hydrocephalus, no obstruction of the free flow of the CSF exists between the ventricles and the spinal theca; rather, the condition is caused by defective absorption of CSF, thus causing increased pressure on the brain or spinal cord. Pathophysiology. The pathophysiology of hydrocephalus occurs as. hydrocephalus. PocaMA ,SahuquilloJ. Department of Neurosurgery, Valld'HebronUniversity Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, PasseigVall d'Hebron119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain. pocama@neurotrauma.net The most suitable drug seems to be acetazolamide,alone or in combination with furosemide. At present, osmotic agents are no longer used.

The Ventricles of the Brain - Lateral - Third - Fourth

Level 2: Extracerebral and intracerebral communication, CSF block, radiological procedures - myelography Level 3: Embryological link PERIPHERAL (SOMATIC) NERVOUS SYSTEM Components and organization Level 2: Details AUTONOMIC (VISCERAL) NERVOUS SYSTEM: Components, Functions Level 2: Control, representation, detailed pathway Level 3: Surgical anatom Seizure (either convulsive or non-convulsive). Enlarging hematoma or edema may cause compression of adjacent tissue, including herniation. Communicating hydrocephalus due to impaired CSF reabsorption. evaluation may include: (1) CT scan with CT venogram (to look for #1 & #2 above). (2) EEG if seizure is a concer Introduction. Communication accommodation is a communication theory which emphasis the adjustments that people does while communicating. Howard Giles, the professor of communication at the University of California, developed the theory which is and according to him is when people try to emphasis or minimize the social difference between the others whom they interact with

Hydrocephalus and Shunts Ausme

Style differences during decision making is a common gender barrier to communication. Women are process-oriented and prefer to gather information, whereas men rely on a product-driven communication style. When an issue arises in the workplace, a female leader is likely to seek the advice of other colleagues Non-communicating hydrocephalus occurs with a block in the flow of CSF (tumor, blood clot) in the space around the brain and the fluid backs up, causing increased pressure Epispadias. Congenital absence of upper wall of urethra that results in a urethral meatus on the dorsum of the penis (image A). Occurs in 1/117,000 male births. There are 3 main types: penopubic, penile, and glandular. Associated abnormalities: diastasis of the symphysis pubis, bladder exstrophy, renal agenesis, and ectopic pelvic kidneys

Hydrocephalus - Wikipedi

The PPT is a valid test of planning, provides flexibility, and is a culture-fair test. In addition, the PPT is anchored, allowing the investigator to determine the failed processes according to the errors made by the child. Furthermore, researchers have determined the performance level of normally developing children on the PPT In asynchronous transmission, Data is sent in form of byte or character. 2. Synchronous transmission is fast. Asynchronous transmission is slow. 3. Synchronous transmission is costly. Asynchronous transmission is economical. 4. In Synchronous transmission, time interval of transmission is constant

Cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging by using phase-contrast

Hydrocephalus, also known as water on the brain, causes cranial swelling and places pressure on delicate brain tissue. Hydrocephalus may go away on its own, or surgery may be required. If needed, the doctor may insert a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VP shunt) to drain the fluid and reduce pressure on the brain cating hydrocephalus.5,10,11 • In noncommunicating or obstruc-tive hydrocephalus, the flow of CSF between the ventricles is obstructed or blocked. In adults, brain tumors, especially intraventricular tumors, are a common cause of noncommu-nicating hydrocephalus.6 • Communicating hydrocephalus occurs when there is a defect in th Penetrating vs. Closed BInjury. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commoly catorized as penetrating or closed. Pentrating TBI: An injury in which the dura, the outer latyer od the meninges, is compromised. Penetrating injuries can be caused by high velocity projectiles (such as bullets and fragments) or objects of lower velocity (such as knives or bone fragments)

PH: (215) 887-5748 | E: SMartCenter@SelectiveMutismCenter.org. Selective Mutism is a complex childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a child's inability to speak and communicate effectively in select social settings, such as school. These children are able to speak and communicate in settings where they are comfortable, secure, and relaxed Dyskinetic cerebral palsy is the second most common type of cerebral palsy after spastic forms. It is marked by abnormal movements in the arms, hands, and legs, making it difficult to control body movements and coordination. Children with this form of cerebral palsy can exhibit slow, writhing-type movements or quick, jerking movements. [5 category for students who have the most significant cognitive, physical, or communication impairments (Turnbull, Turnbull, & Wehmeyer). Prevalence of Multiple Disabilities According to the U.S. Department of Education, Multiple Disabilities represent approximately 2.0 percent of all students having a classification in special education Key Difference - Graves Disease vs Hashimoto The disorders that are due to the immune reactions mounted by the body against its own cells and tissues are known as autoimmune disorders.Graves disease and Hashimoto are two such autoimmune disorders that affect both structure and function of the thyroid gland. However, the ultimate pathological outcomes of these two conditions are drastically. Patient's behavior can be verbal or non-verbal. The nurse reacts to patient's behavior and forms basis for determining nurse's acts. Perception, thought, feeling The nurse and patient mutually communicate, establish goals and take action to attain goals ; Each individual brings a different set of values, ideas, attitudes, perceptions. Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement.