Cratons of India

Abstract. The Precambrian Peninsular India is comprised of a few ancient cratonic nuclei that were formed during prolonged geological history during Archean to Paleoproterozoic and are classified into two blocks: The North Indian Block (NIB) and the South Indian block (SIB) (Naqvi and Rogers 1987).The former comprises of the Bundelkhand and Aravalli Cratons and the latter is made up of the. These cratons are: the Dharwar or Karnataka craton, Bastar (also called Bhandara) craton, Singhbhum (-Orissa) craton, Chhotanagpur Gneiss Complex (which is arguably a mobile belts of some workers), Rajasthan craton (Bundelkhand massif included), and Meghalaya craton The cratons or microplates collided and developed the fold belts that occur peripheral to the cratonic areas of the Indian shield

Indian Cratons SpringerLin

Cratons and Fold Belts of India, is a unique attempt at presenting geological characteristics and evolution of the fold belts and the cratonic areas of the Indian shield The E-W and N-S arrows in north India indicate Meso-Neoproterozoic convergence between the Bundelkhand craton (BKC) and Marwar block across the Aravalli-Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and BKC and Bhandara craton (BC) across the Satpura Mobile Belt (SMB), respectively while the NE-SW arrow is the resultant of these two converging forces during that time The Indian Craton remained attached to Gondwana, until the supercontinent began to rift apart about in the early Cretaceous, about 125 million years ago (ICS 2004). The Indian Plate then drifted northward toward the Eurasian Plate, at a pace that is the fastest known movement of any plate

Cratons are stable because they are strong. The geology of the Himalayas illustrates this - the modern day plate boundary between Indian and Asia is at the southern edge of the Himalayas. The cratonic Indian plate is barely deformed, in great contrast to the vast pile of deformed soft young crust in the Tibetan Plateau to the north From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A craton is an ancient part of the Earth's continental crust which has been more or less stable since Precambrian times. Cratons whose ancient rocks are widely exposed at the surface, often with relatively subdued relief, are known as shields Cratons and Fold Belts of India, is a unique attempt at presenting geological characteristics and evolution of the fold belts and the cratonic areas of the Indian shield. The author has evaluated the different evolutionary models for each fold belt in light of all the currently available geological and geochronological informations that are. Indian Precambrian basins, like almost all around the globe, The fifth section (Dharwar Craton) begins with an overview of are essentially intracratonic depositories with cratonic sub- the late Archaean supracrustal successions of the Dharwar strates to basin-fills; they thus tell us much about cratonic Craton (Sunder Raju & Eriksson 2015)

of Peninsular India during the Precambrian, to provide a frame-work for the following four sections. The latter are devoted to basins preserved in the four Archaean nuclei or cratons that make up the subcontinent. The sixth section addresses Precam-brian mineralization of the cratons and is completed by a synthesi Bundelkhand and Dharwar Cratons (Indian Shield): Comparison of Crustal Evolution in Archean Time. Slabunov AI 1 and Vinod K Singh 2 *. 1 Institute of Geology, Karelian Research Centre, Russia. 2 Department of Geology, Bundelkhand University, India *Corresponding author: Vinod K Singh, Department of Geology, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, India Submission: July 02, 2018;Published: September 25.

In contrast, Pisarevsky et al. (2003) show only one indication for late Grenville-age granitoid that, on palaeomagnetic grounds, the Congo/Sa˜o magmatism in southern India, and this comes from Francisco Craton was far removed from the other strongly discordant zircons of a granite - gneiss xeno- continental masses making up Rodinia (see Fig. Geological Survey of India 3 geologically constituted of Dharwar Craton comprises of greenstone-granite belts, gneisses and granulites. Greenstone belts essentially consist of meta-volcano-sedimentary sequences, surrounded and dissected by Peninsular Gneiss. At the southern end of the craton these give way to granulite suite of rocks The Bastar Craton of India is composed of Archaean nuclei of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses, enveloped by an older granite-greenstone belt (>3000 Ma) with banded iron formation (BIF), and an auriferous younger granite-greenstone belt with BIF Occupies 20% of the area of the Precambrian of the Peninsular India. 4. Proterozoic sedimentary basins are divided into 2 types based on age: (a).Paleoproterozoic basins: 1.Bijawar and Sonrai basins Bundelkhand and Harda Inlier craton 2.Gwalior basin 3.Abujhmar basin Bastar craton 4.Papaghni sub-basin Dharwar craton [Cuddapah basin] 5

What is Gondwana: the supercontinent(PDF) Geochemical, Sr and Nd isotopic studies on meta

Cratons of the Indian Shield SpringerLin

  1. The Bastar craton is delimited by Mahanadi Rift and Pranhita Godavari Valley Rift in the northeast and southwest respectively, CITZ in the northwest and Eastern Ghat mobile belt in the southwest (Fig. 1)
  2. West Indian Peasantry Essay (Craton). In fact, each American on average spends nine hours a day in front of a cell phone or computer screen which can lead to serious health problems (Khan). However, the human's excessive use of particular electronics such as computers, phones, and automobiles.
  3. The Dharwar Craton. Not all great things have to be visible. And Dharwar Craton in South India is one such hidden feature of the Indian Subcontinent. The Dharwar Craton or the Karnataka Craton is a piece of the earth's crust that dates back to the late Archean period, which dates back to 2.5 billion to 4 billion years ago
  4. 2. Geological background. The Bundelkhand Craton forms the eastern part of the Aravalli-Bundelkhand protocontinent (Mondal et al. Reference Mondal, Goswami, Deomurari and Sharma 2002).Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Vindhyan Basin) and tectonic belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone) separate the Bundelkhand Craton from the Aravalli Craton to the west, the Singhbhum Craton to the east and the.
  5. ‎Cratons and Fold Belts of India, is a unique attempt at presenting geological characteristics and evolution of the fold belts and the cratonic areas of the Indian shield. The author has evaluated the different evolutionary models for each fold belt in light of all the currently available geologica
  6. gs, if any, of each model.
  7. Fishermen work from a coracle boat on the Tungabhadra River in southern India. Nearby, giant cratonic rocks are preserved from the Archean eon. Credit: Jyotirmoy Paul Long Live the Cratons

1. The Dharwar craton The Late Archaean Dharwar craton (figure 1), in the sense of Ramakrishnan (1993), is an important part of the collage of Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in Peninsular India. Areas east and south of the craton are characterized by structures, metamorphism an and geochronology of six Indian cratons of which Aravalli and Bundelkhand are located to the north of nearly E-W trending Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) and Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum and Meghalaya are towards the south of the zone. The Aravalli craton with 3.3 Ga old basement of the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) is divide CRATON The Bundelkhand craton is one of four Archean shields (Dharwar, Singhbhum, Aravalli, and Bundelkhand) in India (Fig. 1a). The Bundelkhand shield occupies nearly 29,000 km 2 in the Central Indian Shield region (Fig. 1b); it consists of supracrustal gneisses with or without tonalite-trondhjemite

The northern margin of the Indian craton has been variously considered to consist of a passive margin south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo suture (Myrow et al., 2003), or early Paleozoic accreted terranes (DeCelles et al., 2000), or Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous juxtaposed suspect terranes (Martin, 2017).However, van Hinsbergen et al. (2012) controversially considered that the Tibetan Himalaya was. India has a rich tradition of mineral exploration. Innumerable old workings, mine dumps slag heaps, etc. are the tell tale signs of this glorious tradition. Singhbhum and Aravalli cratons. The investigations carried out since 1960s provide us firsthand information of different mineral occurrences as well as their potential. Keeping in tune. Other articles where Dhārwār craton is discussed: Precambrian: Occurrence and distribution of Precambrian rocks: cratons in southern Africa; the Dharwar craton in India; the Aldan and Anabar shields in Siberia in Russia; the Baltic Shield that includes much of Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of far northern Russia; th

Cratons and Fold Belts of India Ram Sharma Springe

Cratons and Fold Belts of India - Ram Sharma - Google Book

  1. Biswajit Hazarika, Deepak B. Malpe, Ashish Dongre, Petrogenesis of mafic dykes from the western Bastar craton of Central India and their relation to outgrowth of Columbia supercontinent, Mineralogy and Petrology, 10.1007/s00710-020-00695-y, (2020)
  2. The Bastar Craton of India is composed of Archaean nuclei of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses, enveloped by an older granite-greenstone belt (>3000 Ma) with banded iron formation (BIF), and an auriferous younger granite-greenstone belt with BIF. Available geological, geochemical and geochronological data indicate multiple episodes of orogeny with high-grade metamorphism at.
  3. 4. Cratons, Why Are You Still Here?, 2021 American Geophysical Union, Eos [Link] 3. 2021: 100th year of the craton concept and beyond, 2021, European Geoscience Union, Geodynamics divsion [Link] 2. How did the Oldest Part of the Earth Still Survive Today, AWSAR Scheme, Department of Science and Technology, India 1
  4. Average S velocity profiles for Dharwar craton in south India (black solid line) and Aravali and Bundelkhand cratons in north central India (black dashed line) computed from the CUB2.0 model of Shapiro and Ritzwoller. The global S velocity model AK135 (gray line) is shown for comparison. See text for details
  5. Craton, the stable interior portion of a continent characteristically composed of ancient crystalline basement rock.The term craton is used to distinguish such regions from mobile geosynclinal troughs, which are linear belts of sediment accumulations subject to subsidence (i.e., downwarping).The extensive central cratons of continents may consist of both shields and platforms
  6. Cratons are surrounded by orogenic (mountain building) or mobile belts, within which deformation has been localized. For example, cratons comprised of Archean granite-greenstone terrains and Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sequences in Africa, central India and Western Australia are rimmed by Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic orogenic belts,.

Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons

Geology of India - Wikipedi

  1. Cratons of india - SlideShare The Aravalli Mountain Range is a northeast-southwest trending orogenic belt in the northwest part of India and is part of the Indian Shield that was formed from a series of cratonic collisions. The Aravalli Mountains consist of the Aravalli and Delhi fold belts, and are collectively known as the Aravalli-Delh
  2. ous granites, supracrustal rocks, and tectonic belts. Malanjkhand, Dongargarh, and Kanker are the three major granitic plutons emplaced during the Archean-Proterozoic transition in the Bastar Craton, and this study is confined to the granites of Kanker pluton
  3. India. In the Dharwar craton of southern India, the shear wave velocity gradient in the mantle, as well as xenolith geothermobarometry data, suggests a low mantle heat flux, 14-20 mW m−2, consistent with surface heat flux measurements. However, for standard cratonic mantle composition, seismic velocities require Moho and mantle temperature
  4. Southern India comprises an extensive supracrustal sequence of Proterozoic rocks, believed to lie above a number of Archaean cratons. The evolution of the Indian shield was initially suggested to have started around Archaean nuclei that developed into three cratons (Dharwar, Singhbhum and Aravalli; Naqvi et al., 1974)
  5. ous TTG gneisses and intrusive granitoids of ∼ 3.5-3.2 Ga age, flanked by three Paleoarchean greenstone.

Cratons - old and strong Metageologis

A craton always contains the oldest rocks within its host continent, and it typically has ages older than 2.5 billion years, from a geologic era known as the Archean. Common usage has evolved so that the term craton often implies the Archean portion. But strictly speaking, cratons are not limited to the Archean era What is a craton? A craton is a large, coherent domain of Earth's continental crust that has attained and maintained long-term stability, having undergone little internal deformation, except perhaps near its margins due to interaction with neighbouring terranes. Stable continental crust is an end product of intense magmatic, tectonic, and metamorphic reworking; hence, cratons consist of. The eastern margin of the Chitradurga Schist Belt is widely believed as the dividing line of Dharwar Craton (DC) into Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) and Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). This study aims at re-defining the division of DC based on pronounced gravity high encompassing Chitradurga Schist Belt of WDC and Closepet granite to Ramgiri-Penackacherla Schist Belt of EDC The Precambrian Dharwar Craton of Peninsular India comprises three distinct crustal domains, namely the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB). The domain boundaries are demarcated by bipolar (positive and negative) gravity anomalies, measured along a 600 km long Udipi-Kavali seismic line

List of shields and cratons - Wikipedi

July 26 Blog: Exploring the long lost continent of

Cratons and Fold Belts of India (Lecture Notes in Earth

The Singhbhum craton of northeastern India (Fig. 1a, b) contains one of the oldest rock successions in the world (Saha, Reference Saha 1994; Mukhopadhyay, Reference Mukhopadhyay 2001) comparable in age only with the Isua Greenstone Belt of Greenland, the Abitibi Belt of Ontario and Quebec, the Coonterunah Group of the Pilbara craton and the. Several late-collision and intraplate features are not entirely integrated in the classical plate tectonic model. The Pan-African orogeny (730-550 Ma) in Saharan Africa provides some insight into the contrasting behaviour of cratons and mobile belts. Simple geophysical considerations and geological observations indicate that rigidity and persistence of cratons are linked to the presence of a. εSr i vs εNd i for the Dharwar Craton kimberlites and Cuddapah Basin lamproites, southern India. APIP is the field for mafic potassic igneous rocks from the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil. Group I and Group II are the fields of South African kimberlites Dharwar Craton, India (Fig. 1). The Central block of Ram-agiri schist belt in the Eastern Dharwar Craton is dominated by shaly Banded Iron Formation (shaly BIF),as comparedto ''true cherty BIF''. Quite often for the geochemical studies ''pure samples'' made up only of chert and iron minerals ar

(PDF) Chapter 1 Precambrian basins of India: stratigraphic

The paleomagnetic pole position for the Singhbhum craton at 2.25 Ga is 22°N, 126°E (A95=9°). Our pole gives constraints on a unification age of the South Indian Block due to the similar poles seen in the Singhbhum and Dharwar cratons. The 1.76 Ga (Shankar et al., 2014) dykes primarily trend NW-SE, with 01-Jan-2021 . Dear Prof. Bhutani, It is a pleasure to accept your manuscript entitled Geochemical and isotopic studies of potassic granite from the western Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for crustal reworking in the Neoarchean in its current form for publication in Geological Journal NV Chalapathi Rao, SA Gibson, DM Pyle, JA Miller, V Madhavan. Journal of the Geological Society of India 53 (4), 425-432. , 1999. 112 *. 1999. Mesoproterozoic U-Pb ages, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of perovskite from kimberlites of the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: distinct mantle sources The Congo Craton, covered by the Palaeozoic-to-recent Congo Basin, is an ancient Precambrian craton that with four others (the Kaapvaal, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and West African cratons) makes up the modern continent of Africa.These cratons were formed between about 3.6 and 2.0 billion years ago and have been tectonically stable since that time. All of these cratons are bounded by younger fold. Bioregions and Biotones). Laurentia is a bioregion sits atop the Laurentian craton in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, and centering on the Great Lakes. The bioregion spans the Eastern Woodlands of North America from the easternmost part of the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast of the Northeastern West Indian Peasantry.

Bundelkhand and Dharwar Cratons (Indian Shield

GOL 106 LAB 7 PALEOGEOGRAPHY Group _____ Member Names (1)_____ (2)_____ (3)_____ Page Question(s) 89 1 and 2 90 3, 4, 5, and 6 91 7 92 All 93 4 and 5 Precambrian Earth and Life History Part I (The Archean Eon) 1 Archean Rocks • The Beartooth Mountains on the Wyoming and Montana border consists of Archaean-age gneisses - some of the oldest rocks in the US. 2 Precambrian • The Precambrian. However, the Indian craton stayed linked to Gondwana till the supercontinent started to split into pieces approximately in the beginning phase of the Cretaceous era around 125 Ma (ICS 2004) India, and implications for global and craton-specific geological events RAJAT MAZUMDER 1 *, SHUVABRATA DE 2 , TOHRU OHTA 3 , DAVID FLANNERY 4 , LEENA MALLIK 5 , TRISROTA CHAUDHURY 5 , PRIYANKA CHATTERJEE 2 , MARINAH A. RANAIVOSON 6 & MAKOTO ARIMA The Singhbhum craton has a chequred history of mafic magmatism spanning from early Archaean to Proterozoic. However, lack of adequate isotopic age data put constraints on accurately establishing the history of spatial growth of the craton in which mafic magmatism played a very significant role. Mafic magmatism in the craton spreads from ca.3.3 Ga (oldest enclaves of orthoamphibolites) to.

(PDF) African, southern Indian and South American cratons

Dharwar Craton is one such belt which is reported to host gold and tungstenmineralization. The mapping of lineament networks in this green-stone belt in Eastern Dharwar Craton of Southern India provided the basis for correlation analysis of the lineament network in relation to 25 gold and 4 tungsten mineral occurrences. The linear feature The Cuddapah Basin of Andhra Pradesh, India, is a crescent shaped Proterozoic intracratonic (Fig. 1) basin nonconformably overlying the Archaean Dharwar Craton. It covers an area of approximately 44500 km2 (Dasgupta et al. 2005) and is one of the largest intracratonic basins in India (French et al. 2008). The Cuddapah Basin i The data presented in this article related to the research article entitled Petrology and Geochemistry of the Precambrian granitoids from the part of Gadwal schist belt, Eastern Dharwar craton India. The granitoids from the Gadwal schist belt area of the Telangana State are confined to Precambrian Although cratons are not tectonically active, they can be located near active margins, such as the Brazilian craton at the rear of the Andean active margin. 2009, Ram Sharma, Cratons and Fold Belts of India, Springer, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, LNES 127, page 58, The Bastar craton (BC) is also called Bastar-Bhandara craton We use cross-correlation of continuous 18 months (2009 February to 2010 August) ambient noise data recorded over 35 broad-band seismographs in the Archean Dharwar Craton and the adjoining granulite terrain to generate Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps in the period 5-28 s. This is supplemented with longer period data (40-70 s) from earthquake source

Bastar Craton Precambrian Basins of India: Stratigraphic

India, formally called the Republic of India, is the country that occupies most of the Indian subcontinent in southern Asia. In terms of its population, India is one of the most populous nations in the world and falls slightly behind China.India has a long history and is considered the world's largest democracy and one of the most successful in Asia Cratons synonyms, Cratons pronunciation, Cratons translation, English dictionary definition of Cratons. n. A large portion of a continental plate that has been relatively undisturbed since the Precambrian Era and includes both shield and platform layers... jaganmoy jodder - search for life: from early earth to exoplanets - xii th rencontres du vietnam - quy nhon december, 201 Cratons are classified as ancient and young. Ancient cratons were formed during the Precambrian, mostly by the start of the late Proterozoic. Ancient cratons include the Eastern European (Russian), Siberian, North American, Sino-Korean, South China, Indian, African, Australian, and Antarctic platforms

Dharwar craton B Maibam1,3,∗, J N Goswami1 and R Srinivasan2 1Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. 2Geomysore Services (India) Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore 560 028, India. 3Present Address: Department of Earth Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003, Manipur, India. ∗e-mail: bmaibam@yahoo.co Banded Iron Formation (BIF) and iron ore deposit occupy three distinct provinces surrounding the North Odisha Iron Ore Craton (NOIOC) located in eastern India. They are Bonai-Keonjhar belt in the western flank, Badampahar-Gorumahisani-Suleipat belt in the eastern flank and Daitari-Tomka belt in the southern side of the Craton. All these three belts having group status are the best preserved. Cratons are the oldest and most immovable slabs of rock on (or rather in) Earth, with roots stretching down from the center of the tectonic plates to a depth of up to 200 mi (320 km). The assumed. This is the second species to be discovered from the open scrub and rock terrain of northern Karnataka. (Express Photo) Two Mumbai researchers were part of a three-member team of Bengaluru-based National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) that discovered a new species of a fan-throated lizard, Sitana dharwarensis, from the barren lands of northern Karnataka's Bagalkot district

The Channagiri Mafic-Ultramafic Complex occupies lowermost section of the Neoarchaean Shimoga supracrustal group in the Western Dharwar Craton. It is a segmented body occupying the interdomal troughs of granitoids. The magnetite deposits occur in the northeastern portion; typically occupying the interface zone between gabbro and anorthositic. Mineralogically, the deposits are simple with. Structure and SHRIMP U/Pb Zircon ages of granites adjacent to the Chitradurga schist belt: implications for Neoarchaean convergence in the Dharwar craton, Southern India. Journal Geological Society of India, 69 (1), 5-24 modes and provenance. The sandstone has been classified as sub-lithic arenite. The Q-F-L plot indicates a craton interior and recycled orogen. The detritus of sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Mughal Kot Formation and the Pab Sandstone has been derived from the Indian Craton situated east-southeast of the study area Geography of India India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area. It lies on the Indian Plate, which is the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate

Map of Deccan Trap, Sahyadri Western Ghats range, and

Proterozoic sedimentary basins of India in genera

In this contribution, we present detailed field, petrography, mineral chemistry, and geochemistry of newly identified high-Si high-Mg metavolcanic rocks from the southern part of the ~3.3 Ga Holenarsipur greenstone belt in the western Dharwar craton, India. The rocks occur as conformable bands that were interleaved with the mafic-ultramafic units Lakshadweep is India's smallest Union Territory. Our country Indian consists of 28 states and 8 union territories. Union territory is not an independent unit but is run by the administrators appointed by the President of India. Lakshadweep is an archipelago of 36 islands, scattered over approximately 78,000 square km of the Arabian Sea, 200. OF THE ARCHEAN BABABUDAN GROUP, DHARWAR CRATON, SOUTH INDIA: EVIDENCE FOR EARLY CRUSTAL STABILITY' R. SRINIVASAN AND RICHARD W. OJAKANGAS Geomysore Services, 12 Palace Road, Bangalore, India Department of Geology, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55812 USA ABSTRAC

4Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, India A study of U-Pb and Lu-Hf-Yb isotope data in zir-cons from metamorphosed psammopelite and quartz-ite from the type area of Archaean Sargur Group, Dharwar Craton, India is carried out. Two age popu-lations are observed: an older population with con Agates of Paleoproterozoic volcanics (2100−1920 Ma) within the Onega Basin (Karelian Craton, Southeast Fennoscandia) were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry XRF, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and C-O isotope analysis. Agate mineralization is widespread in the lavas.

Craton - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

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Palaeoproterozoic mafic dike swarms of different ages are well exposed in the eastern Dharwar craton of India. Available U-Pb mineral ages on these dikes indicate four discrete episodes, viz. (1) ~2.37 Ga Bangalore swarm, (2) ~2.21 Ga Kunigal swarm, (3) ~2.18 Ga Mahbubnagar swarm, and (4) ~1.89 Ga Bastar-Dharwar swarm Define craton. craton synonyms, craton pronunciation, craton translation, English dictionary definition of craton. all suggest Indian Craton as the most probable source area for the Tredian sediments. PETROGRAPHY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE MID-TRIASSIC TREDIAN SANDSTONE IN THE SALT AND TRANS INDUS SURGHAR RANGES, PAKISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR.

Chapter 1 Precambrian basins of India: stratigraphic andAn overview of the Palaeoproterozoic geology of PeninsularCambrian geology of the Salt Range of Pakistan: LinkingFormation and History of Continents Sample Essay fromList of shields and cratons - Wikipedia

The Revolt. In 1760, some fifteen hundred enslaved black men and women— perhaps fewer but probably many more— took advantage of Britain's Seven Year's War against France and Spain, to stage a massive uprising in Jamaica, which began on April 7 in the windward parish of St. Mary's and continued in the leeward parishes until October of the next year (2020). Geochemical signatures of manganese ores around Barbil, Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes. Ahead of Print In the paleogeographic configuration of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia, the Tarim craton (northwestern China), traditionally seen as a single block, is placed either on the periphery near northern Australia or India or in a central position between Australia and Laurentia. To distinguish between these possibilities, we present here new primary paleomagnetic results from ca. 900.