This is an old video of a cat exhibiting 3 different gait patterns as a treadmill is run at different speeds. Remarkably the cat was made decerebrate for the.. Treatment of spasticity in injection of dilute alcohol at the motor point or by epidural route. Clinical extension of an experiment on the decerebrate cat. Tardieu G, Tardieu C, Hariga J, Gagnard L. PMID: 5708277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Animals; Athetosis/drug therapy; Cats; Cerebral Palsy/drug therapy* Child.
Prolonged time course for vibratory suppression of stretch reflex in the decerebrate cat. W. Z. Rymer *, Z. Hasan * Corresponding author for this work. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review. 16 Scopus citations. Overview In the decerebrate cat experiment, however, the loco-motion pattern is disturbed whenever the left forelimb is placed on the faster treadmill belt. In this case, the distur-bance becomes stationary, i.e., periodic. The locomotion is disturbed before the pattern returns to the desired one, which produces the situation such that the disturbanc decerebrate cats, however, force feedback consistently exhibits a directional bias from proximal to more distal muscles (Ross and Nichols 2009). Based on the stiffness regulation concept of Terminal experiment. After a surgical plane of isoﬂurane gas anesthesia was achieved, tracheal intubation was performed and 1-3
brate cat experiment in which only the left forelimb is driven at higher speed by a belt on a treadmill. A central pattern generator (CPG) model that qualitatively describes this decerebrate cat's behavior has already been proposed. In developing this model, we introduce a memory mechanism to store the locomotion pat tact cat. This experiment has an honorable place in the se-quence of pioneer studies bearing on the problem of central neural organization in emotion. It is surely one of the more im-portant researches in which Woodworth engaged. Another, equally important, was his earlier work with Thorndike on transfer of training Vaginal probing (VP) in the decerebrate cat induces sustained firing of motor units from triceps surae (TS) muscles that outlasts the stimulus for several seconds and, in some instances, for >1 min (Cueva-Rolón et al. 1993)
. The experiments were performed on 18 adult cats (2.5-4.0 kg) The Carbon Dioxide Output of Decerebrate Cats the maintaining of the rigidity requires nogreater energy transforination than occurs in resting muscle.' If, however, there is a diminutionin the amountof carbon dioxide,then the rigidity probably corresponds with ordinary muscular contraction in causing anincreased production of carbon dioxide. APPARATUS. Theartificial respiration wassupplied.
Davies et al. showed that inhalation of halothane, 0.5-1%, by decerebrate cats reduced impulse activity recorded from the carotid sinus nerve during hypoxia to 58% of the control response. In cats, Biscoe and Millar  found that halothane did not depress impulse activity from the carotid sinus nerve during hypoxia, but it depressed it during. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of clonidine on the responses of hindlimb muscles, primarily in the left hindlimb, evoked by stretching the left triceps surae muscles and by stimulating the right tibial and superficial peroneal nerves in eight adult decerebrate cats that were spinalized 1 month before the terminal experiment IN DECEREBRATE CATS . by Andrea M. Zardetto-Smith A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Loyola University of Chicago in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of experiment, in which a 2 kg vagotomized cat was injected i.v. with 2 in the decerebrate cat, using sinusoidal rotation of the head about a vertical axis. Decerebrate, rather than anaesthetized, cats were used for two reasons. First, that transfer function during the experiment. In use, the experimenter saw a continu-ously updated display of the last five or so cycles of the head- and eye-movements brate cat experiment in which only the left forelimb is driven at higher speed by a belt on a treadmill. A central pattern generator (CPG) model that qualitatively describes this decerebrate cat's behavior has already been proposed. In developing this model, we introduce a memory mechanism to store the locomotion pat
Decerebrate cats.-In the decerebrate cat, the intravenous injection of 4 mg./kg. of morphine caused a fall of blood pressure which was less precipitous but just as profound as that produced by the same dose of the drug in the anaesthetized cat. The effect was of shorter duration, lasting 10 to 15 min., and exhibited the usua the spinal cord in the decerebrate cat that it might appear even after destruction of the proprio-ceptive mechanism and of the extero-ceptive mechanism of both hind limbs. This experiment shows firstly, that if the act, as regards a hind limb, is compounded of reflex activities the afferent paths of these do not necessarily lie in the same limb. muscle of the decerebrate cat during stretching of the muscle under controlled conditions. 2. Dimethothiazine in doses of 1 to 4 mg/kg intravenously reduced the dis-chargefrequencyof primaryandsecondaryendings. Higherdoses of dimetho-thiazine had little further significant effect on the discharge frequency. 3. The discharge frequency recorded. jections. In the decerebrate cat, Wolstencroft (42) found that a majorit! of reticulospinal neurons responded only to heavy mechanical stimuli, a property also observed by Oscarsson and Ros&n (32) in a study of reticulo- cerebellar fibers. More recently, Burton (7 ) has reported that, in the intact Studies using a decerebrate cat model have shown that excitability of the spinal motoneurone is modulated very differently prior to a rhythmic and alternating movement when compared to an isometric contraction.The current study was designed to asses
muscle ofthe decerebrate cat without producing anyappreciable change in its respiration. 2. Manual squeezing ofthe same muscle produced a large increase in ventilation. 3. As vibration is known to be a powerful stimulus for the primary endings of the muscle spindle it is concluded that these receptors are unlikely to have any significant role. The following case is characteristic. Decerebration was performed on a normal cat but for some unexplained reason, decerebrate rigidity did not affect one of the hind legs. It remained ﬂaccid during the whole experiment. When the cat died postmortem examination revealed an old healed fracture of the corresponding hip In each experiment, a decerebrate cat was initially anesthetized with diethyl ether for a tracheotomy and then placed on a treadmill (Fig. 1A) with its head fixed in a stereotaxic frame. Then, under deep halothane anesthesia, a partial craniotomy was made over the vermis of lobule V and VI. Within 1-1.5 hr afte The decerebrate, paralyzed cat preparation was used to assure that neuronal responses were due to limb movement continuously monitored throughout the experiment and maintaine .e. in the same type of preparation used in the present are numbers of units tested for each parameter of stimu- experiments, have in fact shown that most of the lation
did an initial experiment with Mike that compared the flexor and extensor reflexes in decerebrate cats, which gave him a thorough grounding in electrophysiology. David was then casting about for his own research project when Mike suggested placing wires in the cortex of cats and recording from them while they were awake. The attempt was a failure Decerebrate Rigidity • CS Sherrington did this operation on experiment on cat in 1890. • Transaction made in between superior and inferior colliculi so animal develops decerebrate rigidity. 70. Features • Hyper extended all limbs, become rigid like pillars • Hypertonia of both muscles (flexors and extensors) • Tail and neck hyper. .'
experiment. Core temperature was kept between 37 and 38° C by a heating pad. The decerebration in all cases pro-duced decerebrate rigidity, characterized by limb extension and head dorsiflexion. The electromyogram (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from neck muscles (occipitoscapularis, splenius, an
Historically, decerebrate nonparalyzed cats walking on treadmills have been used to demonstrate the influence of afferent feedback on the locomotor pattern. This is also possible in nonparalyzed mice cat evokes a brief ipsolateral flexion with contralateral extension, but when the preparation is prone similar stimulation evokes flexion of both hind limbs. This experiment shows the importance of the neural balance between the antagonistic spinal half-centers. In the decerebrate cat and in a supine thalamic cat, tonic impulses from the hind brai Abstract Motor depressant effects of diazepam were studied in the intact, decerebrate and high spinal cat. Diazepam (0·125-16 mg/kg i.v.) produced a depression of both the patellar and linguomandibular reflexes in the intact cat. In the high spinal (C1) cat only the linguomandibular reflex was depressed. Facilitation and inhibition of the patellar reflex elicited in both intact and high. All cats were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide injections (1 mg/kg) administered through the radial veins every 60 min until the end of the experiment. Paralysis is required for the study of centrally generated FS and the effects of specific sensory inputs, so the animals were artificially ventilated (sustained expiratory CO 2 level from 4%. The distribution of locomotor-activated neurons in the brainstem of the cat was studied by c-Fos immunohistochemistry in combination with antibody-based cellular phenotyping following electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) - the anatomical constituents of which remain debated today, primarily between the cuneiform (CnF) and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT)
Comparing the decerebrate cats to normal cats showed similar EMG patterns during level walking and EMG patterns that reflected downhill walking with the head titled up and uphill walking with the head tilted down. This study proved that neck proprioceptors and vestibular receptors contribute sensory feedback that alters the gait of the animal Spindle recordings in decerebrate and decorticate cats (Severin, 1970; Perret & Buser, 1972; Perret & Berthoz, 1973) showed marked fluctuations in spindle activity during locomotor movements that were best interpreted as being driven by a combination of dynamic and static fusimotor activity. A major advance came from the first recordings in an. Methoxamine, an alpha-1 noradrenergic agonist, potently amplifies motoneuron PICs in decerebrate cats (Lee and Heckman, 1996, 1999). Third, prominent and reproducible TVRs could be induced by vibrating the Achilles or patellar tendon in decerebrate cats at long but not short muscle lengths (Figs. 6, 7) 1. We examined the ability of muscular and joint afferents from the hip region to entrain fictive locomotion evoked by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in the decerebrate cat by mechanically imposed, sinusoidal hip flexion and extension movements. 2. A method is presented for qualitative and quantitative analysis of entrainment. 3 . Spontaneous and imposed behaviour was studied while they were growing up and after they had become adult. Special emphasis was put on the utilization of visual cues and on learning. The cats ate, drank and groomed themselves adequately. Adequate maternal and female sexual behaviour was observed. They utilized the visual and.
The sensory and neural mechanisms underlying postural control have received much attention in recent decades but remain poorly understood. Our objectives were 1) to establish th Autonomous decentralized control is a key concept in the interlimb coordination mechanism. Past experiments involving decerebrate cats 3 have suggested that their locomotive patterns are. Connections between utricular nerve and dorsal neck motoneurons of the decerebrate cat. Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints The N1 field potential evoked by UT nerve stimulation was recorded in the vestibular nuclei at the start of each experiment. The potential typically grew until it reached a plateau Animal experiment is an effective method used in previous studies to analyze the mechanism of stretch reflex of a single muscle . Matthews [21-23] studied the relationship between muscle tension and muscle length in different stretching velocities on decerebrate cats. Factors that could influence the stretch reflex, such as muscle length.
stretches of the soleus muscle in decerebrate cats (Nichols and Houk, 1976). These studies show how reflex action can compensate for stretch-induced reductions in muscle force, thus preserving a linear force-length relation in a stretched muscle which would otherwise show acute nonlinearity. Houk sug Central nervous system diseases cause the gait disorder. Early rehabilitation of a patient with central nervous system disease is shown to be benefit. However, early gait training is difficult because of muscular weakness and those elderly patients who lose of leg muscular power. In the patient's walking training, therapists assist the movement of patient's lower limbs and control the movement.
brate cats. The techniques of anaesthesia, decerebration, and electromyography have been described previously (Rex, 1970b). An electromyo-graphic record of the activity of the cricothyroid muscle (an adductor of the larynx) and the diaphragm was obtained during quiet respiration at the start of each series of observations in each experiment Biography Early years and education. Official biographies claim Charles Scott Sherrington was born in Islington, London, England, on 27 November 1857 and that he was the son of James Norton Sherrington, a country doctor, and his wife Anne Thurtell. However James Norton Sherrington was an ironmonger and artist's colourman in Great Yarmouth, not a doctor, and died in Yarmouth in 1848, nearly 9. Isoflurane effects on resting MAP and HR were similar in sham-intact and decerebrate rats. Isoflurane at 1 and 2 MAC decreased basal MAP in a dose-dependent manner in sham as well as in decerebrate rats. The extent of the BP decreases was similar whether the brain was intact or decerebrate
A An example of aortic nerve activity (AoNA), arterial blood pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and integrated tibial motor nerve activity during spontaneous motor activity and during a pressor response by intravenous administration of phenylephrine in a decerebrate cat.B The beat-by-beat changes in AoNA, AP, and HR taken from the data in A (denoted a, b, and c) are shown at a higher chart speed (1) Experiments are described in which the frequency transfer function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in decerebrate cats is measured, for sinusoidal movements of the head about a vertical axis. (2) The frequency response is found to be flat over a range of frequencies from about 0.02 to 1 Hz. (3) By allowing for the combined transfer functions of the semicircular canals and eye mechanics, it. In the Sherrington and Mott experiment, what was the result of the monkeys that were spinalized (spinal cord is severed)? (ex. the duration of the step cycle is significantly longer in cats that have undergone deafferentation than in a chronic spinalized cat without deafferentation. Will decerebrate cats walk on a treadmill decerebrate cats, afferent traffic of vagal C-fibers initiates a pontomedullary reflex that increases respiratory frequency, decreases tidal volume, and augments braking of expiratory After the experiment, the FM type recordings of the EMG signals were played through amplifiers (Gould) and averagers (Gould) by using a 50-ms bin. The duratio Henneman's size principle. Henneman's size principle states that under load, motor units are recruited from smallest to largest. In practice, this means that slow-twitch, low-force, fatigue-resistant muscle fibers are activated before fast-twitch, high-force, less fatigue-resistant muscle fibers. It was proposed by De:Elwood Henneman
Sneezing is a basic reflex that expels irritants and pathogens from the airway. Although designed to be a defense mechanism, sneezing is associated with many viral respiratory infections (e.g., common cold and flu) and allergic rhinitis (a.k.a., hay fever) and severely impacts our quality of life and productivity ( Muscle tone 1. MUSCLE TONE Dr PS Deb MD, DM Director Neurology GNRC Hospital Assam, India 2. Tonus is status of contraction of resting muscle • Muller 1833 A state of partial contraction that is characteristic of normal muscle, is maintained at least in part by a continuous bombardment of motor impulses originating reflexively, and serves to maintain body posture Schiff-Sherrington Phenomenon in Dogs. Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon occurs when the spinal cord is transected by an acute, usually severe lesion to the second lumbar vertebrae (located in the lower back), causing exaggerated posturing in the upper extremities (front limb extension). Hind limb paralysis (regarded as the release phenomenon) can.
In experiment 1, five decerebrate and two full surgical control rats (14) were examinedfor their capacity to retain the altered taste reactivity acquired duringa pairing of a taste with LiCl before the and cats have suffered because it has been impossible to determine whether Table 1. Actual values of a 0.03M sucros taken from an experiment that is repre-sentative of many carried out with vari-ous flexor or extensor nuclei in spinal or decerebrate cats, shows a plot of the amplitudes of homonymousandheteron-ymous reflexes elicited in, and recorded from, the peripherally cut lateral and medial branches of the gastrocnemius nerves in a decerebrate cat. another experiment, recordings were made from CVN neurons of decerebrate cats that had recovered from a bilateral vestibular neurectomy performed 49-103 days previously. Curiously, approximately one-fourth of the units responded to rotations in the pitch plane despite an absence of labyrinthine inputs (Yates et al. 2000) The person who uploaded it says that the cat has been rendered decerebrate for the experiment. This means the cat's brain was non-functioning. This is probably achieved by irreversible surgery. That is the way of humankind, I am afraid to say. What this is said to show is that the movement is not managed or directed by the brain
THE primary afferent ending of the mammalian muscle spindle is highly sensitive to vibration 1-4 . In the presence of fusimotor activity it may discharge an impulse on each cycle of vibration applied to the muscle tendon, for vibrations of frequencies up to 300-400/sec and of amplitudes of a fraction of a mm (refs. 2 and 4). In the decerebrate cat, maintained stretch of an extensor muscle. decerebrate cats, without altering carotid sinus baroreﬂex. A reason for this dissociation may be attributed to a dif-ference in the responses between aortic nerve activity (AoNA) and carotid sinus nerve activity (CsNA) during spontaneous motor activity. The stimulus-response curves of AoNA and CsNA against mean arterial blood pressur General static reactions in the decerebrate animal can most easily be induced by changing the position of the head. This was discovered by chance. Many years ago I prepared a decerebrate cat with cross section of the low thoracic cord, in order to study some reflex reactions of the tail muscles Decorticate and decerebrate posturing were first described by Sir Charles Sherrington, the Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society, in 1900, after experiments were conducted on cats and monkeys. Dissection of the brain stem of these animals induced decerebrate and decorticate posturing Certain biological assays are performed on anesthetized mammals, e.g. that for pressor activity of posterior pituitary preparations (Waring and Landgrebe, 1950) and the cat and guinea pig methods for the assay of digitalis preparations (British Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn., 1948, p. 821--the latest edition available in 1952)
This is in line with observations from infant stepping experiments and experiments in cats. Afferent feedback from knee and ankle joints may be involved largely in the control of focal movements. Before the experiment was started, subjects walked for ∼5 min to habituate to walking within the orthosis. 1981, 1983) and decerebrate. With the gifted help of Surman and A. L. Sims (1901-1969), the CIP's workshop engineer, he built an ingenious tilting treadmill and turntable to study the walking, trotting, and galloping movements of high decerebrate cats . He wrote, excitedly, to Sherrington on 4th January 1938 describing his experiments, particularly the technical.
decerebrate cats to allow the responses observed in the two preparations to be directly compared. Because, to our knowl-edge, this study includes the ﬁrst recordings from RVLM neurons in conscious animals of any species, it was difﬁcult to predict the outcome. As such, our null hypothesis was tha afferent records from intact walking cats (Loeb and Duysens, 1979; Loeb and Hoffer, 1985) agree with the direct recordings of fusimotor activity in the decerebrate cat obtained by Taylor et al. For example, the existence of strong static fusimotor activity during muscle shortening (and almost negligibl (decerebrate) and thus in a com a produced changes in m uscle tone. T he first electrical stim ulation studies of the reticular form ation in free-m oving unanesthetized can w ere undertaken by A m ericans Sprague and C ham bers in 1954. Stim ulation at one site in a cat sitting or standin has been described in the cat decerebrate rigidity preparation.2 For a long time, the IB inhibition has been con-sidered as a protective mechanism against muscle extreme tension. However, the demonstration that active contraction ofonly few motorunits is able to activate Golgi tendon organs suggests rather that-I Animal experiment is an eﬀective method used in previ-ous studies to analyze the mechanism of stretch reﬂex of a single muscle . Matthews [21-23] studied the relationship between muscle tension and muscle length in diﬀerent stretching velocities on decerebrate cats. Factors that coul
Method of Experiment. The experiments have been made on cats either decapitated under anæsthesia by Sherrington's method or decerebrated by removal of all the brain above the anterior colliculi. The limb was fixed by a drill through. the lower end of the femur and shielded stimulating electrodes were applied to the popliteal nerve Experiments using decerebrate cats can be cited as examples of studies to understand gait transitions in quadrupeds [7, 8]. In such experiments, although the cats cannot walk voluntarily, they can walk on a treadmill when electrical stimulation is applied below the midbrain; furthermore, they change their gait pattern according to their speed In 1898 he described and elucidated decerebrate rigidity in the cat. Years later he discovered and analysed the stretch reflex. Each of these major contributions was a fundamental, original advance. In The integrative action of the nervous system ,1 Sherrington introduced a further new concept.2 He elucidated the synapse, a nexus for reflex.
Fifty-one cats weighing 2.5-4.5 kg, 18 males and 33 females, were used in this experiment. The protocol for surgical preparation, stimulation and lesion was described i n the first paper of this series . Among these 51 cats, 6 of 7 NMDA lesioned cats and 11 of 40 cats without NMDA injection developed spontaneous or sensory induce Detection of weak synaptic interactions between single Ia afferent and motor‐unit spike trains in the decerebrate cat. Bernard A. Conway, David M. Halliday, Jay R. Rosenberg. Biomedical Engineering; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review. 17 Citations (Scopus Cats 9. Signal transduction of aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors is not modified by central command during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats.(semanticscholar.org)Interaction of cutaneous and small-diameter, primarily fatigue-induced, muscle afferent inputs on fusimotor neurons has been studied in decerebrate cats.(diva-portal.org).
University of Massachusetts Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014 1-1-1970 The interaction of sinusoidal oscillation an For the samples of Table 3, HFOs were found in 9/16 rats and in 13/13 cats; and in a host of other experiments over the years, HFOs were absent only in 5-10% of decerebrate cats. This lower incidence might be due to differences in physiological state between preparations, such as 1 ) difference in decerebration level (supracollicular for rat.
In the first experiment, we presented the bats with 500-ms broadband noise at 30 dB, 40 dB, and 50 dB SPL (sound pressure level relative to 20 μPa), along with a silence control. as indicated by the finding that decerebrate cats show the Lombard effect We have used the carbachol-injected decerebrate cat to study the changes in respiratory neuronal activity that accompany the atonia. The activities of representative respiratory motor nerves--phrenic, intercostal, and hypoglossal--and that of a motor branch of C4 were recorded in decerebrate, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated.
The major result of this experiment was that some of my rats had babies. I began to watch young rats. I saw them right themselves and crawl about very much like the decerebrate or thalamic cats and rabbits of Magnus. So I set about study-ing the postural reflexes of young rats. Here was a first principle not formally recognized by scientifi Mechanical actions of heterogenic (intermuscular) reflexes arising from proprioceptors in flexor and extensor ankle muscles were measured in intercollicular and premammillary decerebrate cats. Length inputs were applied to the freed tendons of one of a pair of muscles crossing the ankle joint and resulting changes in force in both muscles were. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and is therefore a possible tool with which to assess anaesthetic depth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of isoflurane, remifentanil and dexmedetomidine on HRV before and after nociceptive stimulation at different anaesthetic depths
Darmohray et al. describe a rapid form of cerebellum-dependent locomotor learning in mice that appears to be highly conserved across vertebrates. Cell-type-specific chemogenetics combined with quantitative behavioral analysis reveals that mechanisms for spatial and temporal components of learning are dissociable on the circuit level Sir Charles Sherrington Nobel Lecture Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1932. Inhibition as a Coordinative Factor. That a muscle on irritation of its nerve contracts had already long been familiar to physiology when the 19th century found a nerve which when irritated prevented its muscle from contracting Other related documents Réponses module 9-10 - Notes are taken from the textbook about chapter 9&10 as well as the course content Copy of SPSC 1164 Lab 2 - Lab 2 RLST 2267el 10 Assignments 2014 fresh Intro. to Legal Studies 2 - Lecture Notes How to write a strong paragraph Motor Learning and Performanc
cts of IV-administered midazolam on somatosympathetic Aδ and C reflex discharges in brain-intact cats and decerebrate cats (with transection at midbrain level). METHODS: Somatosympathetic Aδand C reflexes were elicited in the inferior cardiac sympathetic nerve by electrical stimulation of myelinated (Aδ) and unmyelinated (C) afferent fibers of the superficial peroneal nerve in 28 mature. breathing adult cats (mean body weight 2.82±0.22 kg). The animals were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone by an initial intraperitoneal dose of 35-40 mg/kg and a maintenance dose 1-2 mg/kg/h given intravenously. In the course of the experiment, the end-tidal CO2 was continually monitored by a capnograph (Capnogard, Novametrix) sponses to hypercapnia in anesthetized or decerebrate animals (12, 26). There is decreased discharge of medullary raphe neu-rons projecting to the HMN in a pharmacologic model of REM sleep in vagotomized and decerebrate cats (22). This change is accompanied by reduced 5-HT at the HMN in association with reduced hypoglossal nerve activity (27, 28) Napier J Hands Princeton NJ Princeton University Press 1980 Nudo R J B M Wise F from PSYCHOLOGY 111 at University of Leiceste An experiment was aimed at testing flexor reflex in a spinal frog, which was initiated by simultaneous stimulation with isolated pre-threshold electrical impulses. The frequency of those impulses was such, that the reflex occurred. In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by α,β-Methylene ATP elicits a reflex pressor response arising from muscle in decerebrate cats. J Appl Physiol. 2002; 93: 834-841. Crossref Medline Google Scholar; 30 Hanna RL, Kaufman MP. Role played by purinergic receptors on muscle afferents in evoking the exercise pressor. J Appl Physiol. 2003; 94: 1437-1445. Crossref Medline Google Schola