A mechanism of writhing reaction induced by kaolin, a known activator of factor XII, was studied. Kaolin induced a distinct writhing response, when injected intraperitoneally into mice (2.5 mg/mouse). The response disappeared in 15 min, but it was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of captopril Phenylbenzoquinone-induced writhing was partially blocked by pretreatment with mepyramine or other antihistamines. Using guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat fundus preparations as in vitroassay systems, no significant differences were detected in histamine, serotonin, or prostaglandin content of peritoneal fluid from writhing and control mice Phenylbenzoquinone-induced writhing was partially blocked by pretreatment with mepyramine or other antihistamines. 5. Using guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat fundus preparations as in vitro assay systems, no significant differences were detected in histamine, serotonin, or prostaglandin content of peritoneal fluid from writhing and control mice Pain is induced by injection of irritants into the peritoneal cavity of mice (Koster et al., 1959; Singh and Majumdar, 1995). The animals react with a characteristic stretching behavior which is called writhing (Burke and Fitzgerald, 2006)
The intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg PGE2 (which by itself was inactive) enhanced the writhing response induced by a subnociceptive dose of bradykinin (BK, 0.5 mg/kg ip) in male mice. The BK1 agonist, DesArg9-BK and the BK1 antagonist DesArg9-Leu8-BK did not affect writhing. The BK2 agonists, Lys-BK and Tyr-BK, like BK, induced writhing in the PGE2-treated mice. On the other hand, the. (ii) Study of Acetic acid induced writhing response The analgesic activity of the samples was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing method in mice. In this method, acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to the experimental animals to create pain sensation. In this study Diclofenac sodium was used as the positive control drug Intraperitoneal administration of zymosan and acetic acid induced a dose-dependent nociceptive writhing response in mice. Lavage of the peritoneal cavities with saline reduced the number of total resident peritoneal cells and caused a proportional decrease in the nociceptive responses induced by these stimuli MCC950 greatly ameliorated the writhing response induced by the combination of oxytocin and estradiol, with an increasing length of tail-flick latency. MCC950 also significantly decreased the levels of PGF2α and PGE2, and the expressions of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, phospho-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 in the uterus
Meanwhile, DSS-induced colitis model mice were furtherly constructed. The results displayed BC299 can restore body weight and relieve colon morphology of colitis mice. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonsrated BC299 can regulate immune response by reducing the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA and increasing the. In the first, varied nociceptive stimuli induce declared behavior such as abdominal contortions (writhing) and paw flinch or licking without further mechanical or thermal external stimuli
Moreover, the participation of writhing model ŽKoster et al., 1959; Collier et al., 1968.. eicosanoids in the nociceptive responses induced by acetic To determine whether cytokines are involved in the acid and zymosan and of sympathomimetic amines in the writhing response in this model, we used acetic acid and response induced by acetic acid. acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) . Lavage of the peritoneal cavities with saline reduced the number of total resident peritoneal cells and caused a proportional decrease in the nociceptive responses induced by these stimuli. Furthermore, the specific reduction of the peritoneal mast cell population by.
The antinociceptive effects of interleukin (IL)-4, -10, and -13 were investigated in two different experimental pain models. Our results showed that pretreatment (30 min) with IL-4 (1-5 ng/animal), IL-10 (0.4-10 ng/animal), or IL-13 (0.4-2.5 ng/animal) inhibited the writhing response induced by the i.p. administration of acetic acid (53-89%) or zymosan (63-74%) in mice, and the knee. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis) was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice) Kaolin induced a distinct writhing response, when injected intraperitoneally into mice (2.5 mg/mouse). The response disappeared in 15 min, but it was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of captopril, 20 micrograms, into mice who had received the injection of kaolin 60 min before Ribeiro, R. A. et al. Involvement of resident macrophages and mast cells in the writhing nociceptive response induced by zymosan and acetic acid in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 387, 111-118 (2000) Effects on the Writhing Response Induced by Acetic Acid in MiceAs shown in Fig. 1, ethanol extract of P. lamellidens (EtOH-ext.) inhibited the writhing response in-duced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid in mice at doses of 1.5 and 3.0g/kg with inhibition percentage of 62.3% and 75.9%, respectively. Table 2 showed that all frac
san-induced writhing response and the articular incapacitation. Our results demonstrate that IL-4, -10, and -13 display analge-sic activity that is probably not due to endogenous opioid release. This analgesic effect could be related to a peripheral mechanism, probably via the inhibition of the release of th The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice and tail flick method in albino rats. Results: The aqueous extract of SPA in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg showed 52.6, 54.4 and 56.1% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the end of three hours and the percentage o Results: MCC950 greatly ameliorated the writhing response induced by the combination of oxytocin and estradiol, with an increasing length of tail-flick latency. MCC950 also significantly decreased the levels of PGF 2α and PGE 2, and the expressions of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, phospho-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 in the uterus
Acetic Acid-induced Writhing Response in Mice This test was conducted using the method described by Witkin et al. (1961). The muscular contractions were induced in mice by intra peritoneal injection of 0.6% solution of acetic acid (10 mL kg-1 b.wt.). Immediately after administration of acetic acid, the animals were placed in glass cages and the. acid-induced writhing response and in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model in ICR mice, respectively. In addition, the chondroprotective effects of ALM16 were analyzed using a single-intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) in the right knee joint of Wister/ST rat. All samples were orally administered dail ., 1960). The first phase is due to the release of histamine or sero-tonin, and the second phase is caused by the release of Table 1. Analgesic activity of different extracts of Phyllanthus reticulatus on acetic acid-induced writhing response and radiant hea
The PBQ-induced writhing response is believed to be produced by the liberation of endogenous substance(s), notably metabolites of the arachidonic cascade (21, 22). However, the PBQ test is not specific for weak analgesics such as the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, as it also detects centrally active analgesics (16, 17) The percentage of the inhibition of writhing response induced by extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were 43.33, 64.42 and 70.5%, respectively, despite the fact that indomethacin inhibited the writhing response by 80%. Furthermore, indo-methacin significantly delayed the onset of first abdominal writhing (latency time) whe The intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg PGE2 (which by itself was inactive) enhanced the writhing response induced by a subnociceptive dose of bradykinin (BK, 0.5 mg/kg ip) in male mice. The BK1 agonist, DesArg9-BK and the BK1 antagonist DesArg9-Leu8-BK did not affect writhing . Figure 4. Thus, a drug that inhibits the iloprost-induced writhing response and reduces release of prostaglandins in the central nervous system is likely to be a centrally acting analgesic drug. This chapter compares the iloprost- and acetic acid-induced writhing responses in mice and describes a method for measuring central prostaglandin levels
The writhing response correlated equally well with PGE 2 levels and 6-keto-PGF 1α levels when data from mice treated with centrally-acting analgesics were excluded. However, intraperitoneal injection of PGI 2 , but not PGE 2 , reversed the analgesia induced by indomethacin in zymosan-injected mice A model of acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice is widely used as a screening analgesic model. Acetic acid possibly induces algesia by causing intra-abdominal tissues damage and release of pain-producing substances which excite pain nerve endings [ 12 , 27 ] ic acid on acetic acid-induced writhing response. Ellagic acid could weaken acetic acid-induced writhing response (Figure 2). Effects of ellagic acid on IL-6 and NF-κB in ace-tic acid-induced inflammatory visceral nocicep-tion of mice As shown in Figure 3, there was a consequen-tial increase of IL-6 and NF-κB in bloods of ace . As expected, the standard positive control, diclofenac, caused a dose-dependent analgesic effect, as evidenced by the reduction in the righting response
The analgesic experiments were performed by testing the inhibitory activity of the compounds on the writhing times of mice induced by acetic acid, and the results are listed in Table 2.The experiment demonstrated that samples P, D2, and D3 were significantly different from control group, P and D2 groups showed the highest activity compared with others samples 1 Oral administration of high doses of paracetamol (600 mg kg−1 or more) resulted in inhibition of the writhing and reduced the levels of prostacyclin (PGI2, measured as 6-keto-PGF1α) induced by in.. after referred to as UVC (L), induced writhing behavior from 20% of the larvae (Figure 1A). The percentage of larvae showing writhing behavior increased with higher intensities of UVC demonstrating a clear dosage effect with ~75% displaying writhing motion in response to 1.2 mW/cm2 (UVC(M)) and essentially 100% respondin Aconitine (AC) is the primary bioactive and secondary metabolite alkaloidin of Aconitum species which is accounted for more than 60% of the total diester-diterpenoid alkaloids in Aconite. To evaluate the analgesic effects of AC, 4 different pain models including hot plate assay, acetic acid writhing assay, formalin and CFA induced pain models were adopted in this study Dose-response curves for the antinociceptive activity in the writhing test of mice induced by fentanyl, methadone, morphine and tramadol. Each point is the mean ± SEM of six animals. % MPE = antinociception represented as a percentage of maximum possible effect
In addition, analgesic (acetic acid‐induced writhing response), anti‐pyretic (yeast‐induced pyrexia) and gastric ulceration effects were tested. The levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and paw volume were significantly increased, and anti‐oxidant status was found to be reduced in monosodium urate crystal‐induced rats. A writhing response by the larvae was recorded as a nociceptive hypersensitive response if the larvae showed at least three corkscrew-like movements without a stop at a temperature that was lower than the one that induced a similar reaction in WT larvae A new pharmacological action of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) is described. Pretreatment of male ddY mice with MDP, but not its biologically inactive analogs, significantly decreased the frequency of acetic acid-induced writhing movements more effectively than did acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). The analgesic effect of MDP, however, was less than that of a narcotic antagonist. Effect of PFPe on acetic acid-induced writhing test. Pretreatment with PFPe (3 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before acetic acid) produced a significantly decreased (P < 0.05) abdominal writhing response (22.00 ± 2.41 writhing), compared with the group treated with acetic acid alone (29.50 ± 1.32 writhing) . Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.), an opioid receptor. Antinociceptive effects (number of writhing responses) during the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The number of writhing responses were recorded in mice following treatment with different doses of A alone (60 and 120 mg/kg, i.v.), N alone (3.5 and 7 mg/kg, i.v.) or N in combination with A (1.75 N + 30 A, 3.5 N + 60 A and 7 N + 120 A.
Acetic acid induced writhing in mice11 Acetic acid induced writhing method was adopted for evaluation of analgesic activity. Writhing is defined as a stretch, tension to one side, extension of hind legs, contraction of the abdomen so that the abdomen of mice touches the floor, turning of trunk (twist). Any writhing is considered as a positive. Writhing is an overt response to the intense pain induced by irritant principles via nociceptors characterized by episodes of retraction of abdomen and stretching of hind limbs. The signals transmitted to central nervous system in response to pain due to irritation, cause release of mediators such as prostaglandins which contributes to the. chemical and thermal method. In chemical method acetic acid induced writhing response [11-13] and in thermal method both hot plate reaction time and tail flick method [14-16] were used. The animals were divided into groups as shown in Table 2. Different extracts were administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight orally, aspirin was used a
. writhing is defined as a stretch, to one side, extension of hind legs, contraction of the abdomen so that the abdomen of mice touches the floor turning of trunk (twist). Any writhing is considered as a positive response. Swiss albino mice. The analgesic activity was evaluated by hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced writhing methods in Swiss Albino mice at the doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight. The extract was also investigated for the anti-inflammatory effect on Long Evans rats at above mentioned doses using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method.
The acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking time in the early and late phases of mice were used to assess analgesic activity. The higher doses of DCE (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were inhibiting carrageenan, histamine and serotonin-induced paw edema as well as formaldehyde-induced arthritis successfully Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (10); 2011: 98-101 Values are mean+SEM (N=3). Table :2 Effect of Shishadi Extract on acetic acid induced writhing response in rodents. Groups Dose of Drug Writhingb % Inhibitio
Writhing method was used for the evaluation of reaction which is characterized as writhing response. Constriction of abdomen, turning of trunk (twist) and extension of hind limb are taken as reaction parameter to chemically induced pain. Drugs/Groups Group I 2% gum acacia (10 ml/kg, P.O.), group I Abnormal movements are frequently encountered in patients with brain injury hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs), yet characterization of these movements and their underlying pathophysiology is difficult due to the comatose or uncooperative state of the patient. In addition, the available diagnostic approaches are largely derived from outpatients with neurodegenerative or developmental. Significant response against acetic acid-induced writhing and hotplate assay by AK-1a and AK-2a explains central as well as peripheral activity of dibenzylidene ketone derivatives . In acetic acid-induced writhing at higher dose AK-2a showed significant response, it can be further checked for anti-inflammatory response 18The acetic acid-induced writhing assay was used to determine the degree of antinociception. Nociceptive responses were characterized by the presence of abdominal contractions, which consisted of the contraction of flank muscles associated with inward movements of the hind limb, a hind paw reflex, or whole-body stretching estradiol benzoate induces writhing responses, which reflect the presence of UCP. Here, we first compared writhing response between Pirt +/ and Pirt −/ mice. Second, we examined the innervation of Pirt-expressing nerves in the uterus of Pirt−/− mice by immunofluorescence and two-photon microscopy. Third, we identified the soma of dorsa
MOR (5 mg/kg), a standard drug, used as positive control, also produced significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing response. Thumbnail Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction is a standard, simple, and sensitive test for measuring analgesia induced by both opioids and peripherally acting analgesics (Hunskaar & Hole, 1987) The in vivo studies performed on pyrexia-induced rats showed that viscosine possesses strong antipyretic actions. Low dosages of viscosine showed high antipyretic potential at later phases compared to aspirin. Viscosine also signiﬁcantly suppressed the writhing response in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking studies suggest that.
Analgesic activity Formalin-induced paw licking test. The results of the experiment exhibited that both 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of EETI showed highly significant (p < 0.001) percent inhibition of writhing in both neurogenic phase (42.40% and 63.25% respectively) and inflammatory phase (41.09% and 48.63% respectively) while standard drug Diclofenac sodium showed 73.67% and 66.56% in both phases. time response curve. Positive control group received standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 10mg/ kg BW [16, 17]. Acetic acid-induced writhing test The analgesic activity of the extract was studied using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice . The animals were divided into normal control, positiv Moreover, acetic acid-induced writhing does not appear to involve GABAergic transmission as IT injections of nipecotic acid did not alter the intensity of response to IP acetic acid while it enhanced the response to IT GABA. Writhing induced by glycine was not inhibited by strychnine at subconvulsive doses, suggesting that it involves an action.
Writhing behavior—which may indicate the presence of visceral pain—was less evident in Pirt −/− mice than in Pirt +/+ mice. These observations suggest an involvement of Pirt in UCP. Interestingly, the writhing response was manifested in two phases after oxytocin injection, similar to that of formaldehyde-induced inflammatory pain [23. The results were almost similar to standard drug. In acetic acid induced writhing test, maximum inhibition of writhing was observed at 1000 mg/kg where the number of writhes decreased from 14.1 to 5.2 indicating 63.1% inhibition Dyskinesias are involuntary, erratic, writhing movements of the face, arms, legs or trunk. They are often fluid and dance-like, but they may also cause rapid jerking or slow and extended muscle spasms. They are not a symptom of Parkinson's itself. Rather, they are a complication from some Parkinson's medications. Dyskinesias usually begin after a few years of treatment with levodopa and can. Corydalis saxicola Bunting, affiliated with the Papaveraceae Juss., has been proven to work well in anti-inflammation, hemostasis, and analgesia. This study was designed to observe the effect and potential mechanism of Corydalis saxicola Bunting total alkaloids (CSBTA) on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN). Rats were injected 2 mg/kg paclitaxel 4 times and administrated with 30 or. CSBTA tended to restore the writhing response in mice and had a signicant inhibitory eect when the dose reaches 100 mg/kg. 100 mg/kg CSBTA also increased the threshold for thermal stimulation in the tail-ick test . Our group has previously found that oral adminis-tration of CSBTA (30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg
(B) Acetic acid-induced writhing response. (C) Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. Formalin-induced nociception mice, (D) first-inflammatory phase, 0-10 minutes after formalin induction, and (E) second-inflammatory phase, 15-30 minutes after formalin induction. Control animals received saline (0.9% NaCl) The glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is the principal mediator of glutamate clearance to terminate glutamate-mediated responses. Transgenic mice overexpressing human EAAT2 (EAAT2 mice), which exhibited a twofold enhanced glutamate uptake, showed 39% less writhing response to intraperitoneal acetic acid than nontransgenic littermates The osmolarity of acetic acid contributed to evoking the wiping response because buffers at subthreshold pHs evoked the wiping response. Also, the osmolarity required to evoke the wiping response depended upon the pH of the buffer. Thus, acetic acid and the buffers at pH 2.97 and 4.67 could evoke the wiping response by decreasing subepidermal pH In acetic acid induced writhing model the hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate partition fractions of Mesua ferrea leaf at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight produced 36.08%, 16.33% and 10.21% (Table 1) reduction of writhing response Writhing test Collier et al(1968) Visceral or peritoneal pain model. Drugs having central and peripheral analgesic activity. Mice of either sex (20 and 25 g) Pain is induced by intraperitoneal injection of chemicals that irritate serous membranes and provoke stereotype behavior in mice known as writhing. A writhe is indicated by streching of.
For assessing the analgesic activity, two chemical methods were used namely formalin test  and acetic acid-induced writhing test. In both the tests, rats and mice were first screened to eliminate non-responders, animals which do not show any response in the tests due to their inherent nature Some pharmacological tests were carried out to evaluate pharmacological properties e.g. acute toxicity by intraperitoneal route; anti-nociceptive studies by acetic acid induced writhing response model, formalin induced licking response model, Hot Plate Latency Assay, antidepressant activity and anti-inflammatory activity using various animal e.
UVC induces mdIV-mediated writhing behavior. UVC has been shown to induce an immediate behavioral response from Drosophila larvae consisting of repeated vigorous bending of the body from side to side and referred to as writhing behavior .This response is essentially identical to the previously characterized writhing response to noxious heat stimulus [10, 33] (Additional files 1 and 2) Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease. In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment. These consist of involuntary writhing movements (dyskinesia), painful cramps in the legs (dystonia) and a shortened response to each dose referred to as 'end-of-dose. In response to a clinical model of inflammation, ACT only suppressed in vivo PGE2 (and not TXB2) similar to rofecoxib (a selective COX2 inhibitor) suggesting that in vivo ACT selectively inhibits COX2. 48 It is important to note the removal of two impacted third molars induces a pathophysiological state where COX2 (inducible in response to. By oral administration to mice, the infusion showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent reduction of carrageenan-induced inflammation and inhibition of formalin-induced pain (late and early phase) and acetic acid-induced writhing compared with the control. On the other hand, infusion up to 8 g/kg b.w. showed no signs of toxicity or mortality
Myrsine africana L. (Family Myrsinaceae) commonly known as mirting, is an evergreen shrub found wildly in tropical Asia to Africa. The plant has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and extensively used in folk medicine. The reported literature reveals that there is no pharmacological activities carried out on the fruits of M. africana in order to validate its traditional claim. Pharmacologyonline 1: 604-612 (2011) Rahman et al. 611 Discussion Antinociceptive activity of the extract of fruits of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. tested by acetic acid induced writhing model in mice. Acetic acid, which is used to induce writhing, causes algesia by liberation of endogenous substances, which then excite the pain nerve endings 14..