Effects of violent elections

To explore the effect of electoral violence on women's meaningful participation, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) convened seven focus groups of Bangladeshi women in 2013 and 2015 to discuss electoral violence they have experienced both in the home and in the public sphere. Under the Bangladesh Election Support. Here are a few of the circumstances that some experts say can spark election violence -- in Kenya and elsewhere: 1. Unclear election results that aren't credible. The unrest in Kenya began in.

The Effect of Violence on Women's Electoral and Political

Racialized election violence. But violence directly linked to elections arguably reached a fever pitch in the decades following the North's victory in the Civil War. The national Republican Party. The comparative democratization literature is divided on the effects of multiparty elections in non-democratic regimes. Early analyses assumed that elections would lead to democracy, yet more recent studies highlight that elections may serve as a stabilizing tool, enabling incumbents to distribute patronage and coopt the opposition This article reports on the effects of domestic election observers on electoral fraud and violence. Using an experimental research design and polling station data on fraud and violence during Ghana's 2012 elections, it shows that observers reduced fraud and violence at the polling stations which they monitored Keywords: Political, Violence, Effects, Social and Development elections held in 2003 was preceded by widespread intra-party and inter-party violence that continued on the polling days (Human Rights Watch 2004). This further indicated that both Nigeria's federal and state elections i Politicians often foment violence before elections to reduce competitiveness and, hence, increase their chances of winning. Given that fear and intimidation may be used to prevent voters from casting their ballots, many case studies, as well as anecdotal evidence, suggest that electoral violence has a suppressive effect on voter turnout

What Causes Some Elections to Go Violent? - The Atlanti

According to the findings of Ellman and Wantchekon (2000) the apprehension of post- electoral violence affects electoral behaviour. They argue, that the stronger political party can never lose elections if it is able to make a credible threat of possible post- election violence (Ellman and Wantchekon 2000) On the voting day of the first phase of the UP elections held on March 22, violence left 11 people dead and around a thousand others wounded; while during the campaign period, 10 others died and. A child's exposure to violence can lead to lasting physical, mental, and emotional harm. Georgina Cranston/R. Kenya's recent general election was held amid political tension and fear. Electoral violence - beyond direct effects such as hindering people from casting their vote and preventing candidates from participating in the election - can have long-term effects of causing disillusionment and frustration with politics consequences of violence (Hafner-Burton et al. 2014). The dominance of pre- election violence, in particular, indicates that the purpose of the violence is to influence the election through intimidation, harassment, assassination, or othe

Violence is the greatest threat to free and fair elections in new and emerging democracies. Perhaps a useful distinction should be made between violence aimed at disrupting an election by those who have no interest in a particular election taking place, and election violence triggered by the rivalry between contesting political parties and or candidates 2020 Election; This Scary Statistic Predicts Growing US Political Violence — Whatever Happens On Election Day. Two researchers claim that a single number they call the political stress indicator can warn when societies are at risk of erupting into violence. It's spiking in the US, just like it did before the Civil War Effects of Electoral Violence on Nigeria Democracy CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the study. Within the context of a complete break away from one-party and military dictatorships, African countries dived into competitive multiparty elections since the 1990s Election violence results as a result of controversies in the electoral process. The recent elections were disputed since most of the citizens thought that it was not conducted in a free and fair manner. When violence occurs it has very negative effects to the citizen of the country

The takeaway: while political violence remains a real possibility for upcoming elections in a number of countries, the effects of such violence are likely to vary based on context and intent. In some instances, armed actors may turn to violence in an explicit effort to decrease turnout among targeted populations Over 1000 individuals were killed and 600,000 were displaced during post-election violence (PEV) in Kenya in 2008. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on continuous access to medications which may have been interrupted due to PEV. In a mixed-methods retrospective review, treatment interruption of A Elections, Violence and Conflict Prevention June 20 - 24, 2011 Barcelona, Spain. DISCLAIMER The contents of this report reflect discussions that took place during the workshop and should in no way be considered to represent a statement of fact or the official position o election violence in 2010/2011, identified 71 rapes, which included young girls , married women, and older women by armed men and other political party affiliates. • In Nigeria, when men and women are forced to line up in the same line to vote, women ar The impact of violent protests, race relations on election This is a rush transcript from Special Report, August 26, 2020. This copy may not be in its final form and may be updated


  1. elections are not marred by violence. Risk Factors While each context is unique, certain patterns have been identified that put countries at risk of electoral violence. Elections are not inherently a source of violence. However, they can exacerbate political, ethnic, regional, and religious tensions and spill over into violence, especially if.
  2. The potential of violence is threatening to further divide the United States of America ahead of one of the most consequential presidential elections in modern history
  3. While most elections in West Africa have been held in a peaceful environment in recent years, various acts of violence have been recorded. What is the nature of this violence and how to eradicate it for good? Since the 1990s, the elections in West Africa have often been a strong opportunity to express violence. Togo in 2005, Nigeria in 2007, Côte d'Ivoire in 2010-2011, Guinea in 2010, to.
  4. Electoral violence is levied by political actors to purposefully influence the process and outcome of elections, and it involves coercive acts against humans, property, and infrastructure (Bekoe, 2012; Harish & Toha, 2019; Höglund, 2009).It can happen in all parts of the electoral cycle, including at the announcement of elections, party primaries, and voter registration (Seeberg, Wahman.
  5. Causes and Effects of Political Violence in the World Today. Violence between groups is often caused by fear and hatred. This may have existed for hundreds of years and have causes that are very deep-rooted. Such situations are not easily resolved, since both sides are deeply conscious of historical grudges and believe that they must fight to.
  6. ing the.

Kenya Election Violence and the Police Response - CHRIPS. The recent elections in Kenya raised tensions both nationally and internationally with many fearing a repeat of the violence seen in the 2007/8 elections, which claimed the lives of more than 1,200 people and left more than 600,000 displaced from their homes Aerial assesment of the areas affected by electral violenc 1 Electoral Processes and Democratization: The Role of Election Monitoring Bodies in Africa 1.1. Introduction Electoral processes are of utmost importance in a democracy.1 Democracy essentially speaks to a 'government of the people, for the people and by the people'.2 The citizens are the centrepiece to democracy, they through their vote have the power to maintain an

The cumulative effects of the post-election violence have dealt a severe blow to the economy. In a January 19th report, the Kenya Association of Manufacturers estimated that the Kenyan economy. View Map of the Post-Election Violence Hot-Spots in Kenya. Roots of the 2008 Crisis. The 2008 post-election violence played out largely on ethnic lines, and ethnicity continues to play an inordinate role in Kenyan political life. Ethnic-based violence has a long history in the country, fueled by grievances over land, privilege, and inequality search on voting behavior in congressional elections tells us that cam-paigns should matter, and virtually everything we have learned by examining the effects of campaign-speciAc variables on election results tells us that, in one way or another, campaigns do matter. What remains in question is how campaigns matter. Here the consensus dissolves. partners. What are the effects and what is the extent of that damaged relationship? The research will be conducted on Kenyan communities that have been involved in war of an ethnic nature and seek to see if, during such wars, for example the Post-election violence of 2007-2008, some economic opportunities and investments were shuttered On one hand, elections may spark violent contests and conflagration among political parties, actors and elites as evidenced in the cases in South Sudan, Ivory Coast in 2000 and 201 Mozambique in 2004, 2008 and 2013, Kenya in 1992, 1997, 2003 and 2007, Nigeria in 2003, 2007, 2011 and other nations (Small: 2015)

Election Violence Prevention. Practitioners from various organizations and agencies have developed a wealth of experience and expertise on promoting peace and security in hotly contested elections held in fragile environments through more effective youth programming and peace messaging. However, regardless of capacity, no single organization. influence election politics commit violent acts with the knowledge that is unlikely they will ever be held accountable. 2. The 2007 Elections & Post-Election Violence These long-standing conflict drivers remained well-established as the 2007 election approached, notwithstanding the relative peace of the 2002 elections Election violence motivates the opposition . In previous research with Dorina Bekoe, we found that violence does not appear to affect voter turnout. We find no difference in aggregate voter. Likewise, they can intervene in a competitive election in favor of one of the sides contesting it and cause the undesired leader to lose that election (Corstange & Marinov, 2012; Levin, 2016). However, the generally non-violent nature of such methods have led them to be excluded by most scholars of FIRCs from their datasets and studies Media commentators have dubbed this the Trump Effect. We find compelling evidence to support the Trump Effect hypothesis. Using time series analysis, we show that Donald Trump's election in November of 2016 was associated with a statistically significant surge in reported hate crimes across the United States, even when controlling for.

We uncover sizable increases in the number of murders perpetrated by the Sicilian Mafia in the year preceding an election. This effect is specific to victims linked with the polity—party candidates, campaign workers, activists, etc.—whereas there is no increase in, say, the number of entrepreneurs or judges killed by the Mafia Prior to the March 29 elections, Human Rights Watch expressed serious concerns about the possibility of post-election violence due to the flawed nature of the electoral process and the failure of. Tragedy of Bengal politics: A history of political violence. For the time being, take a look at the phenomena of violence and polls in the state famed for its cultured, educated gentry, connoisseurs of fine arts with refined tastes fondly identified as Bhadralok. One of the most telling political lampoons on the current state of politics in. politicians has further complicated the electoral violence trends in the country. The five national elections held in the country since 1999 had their share of violent conflicts and illicit use of money as well as the complicity of the money bags politicians who equally engaged in the manipulation of ethnicity and religion

This is a brutal war. More than 100 have died and thousands have endured savage beatings in the lead up to Zimbabwe's presidential run-off. As Robert Mugabe's thugs terrorise opposition supporters. The Effects of Civic Education and Electoral Observation on Voters During Violent Elections. This project investigates whether democracy promotion programs typically supported by international donors like the United States — namely, civic education and election observation — can affect citizens' democratic attitudes and political. Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable. —John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) 35th President of the United States, Alliance for Progress, March.

When elections lead to violence: It's happened before

In the 2007 post-election violence, during which more than 1,100 people were killed, most of the more than 400 people shot by police were in the Nyanza region, which includes those counties The work exposed the diverse dimensions of electoral violence manifest prior, during and after the election and consequent effects on lives and properties. Therefore, the objective of the study is to echo the fact that electoral violence, intimidation, corruption, indiscipline among other vices cannot ensure a democratic free society, good. The protests that took place across the country between May and August, as well as a new surge in violent crime in several U.S. cities, could impact voter decisions come Nov. 3, according to.

Election violence, and accountability. Sierra Leone has held 11 parliamentary and five presidential elections since independence in 1961 (*). All have been accompanied by violence. In the 1967 elections, the ruling SLPP used new public order legislation and rarray boys- thugs - to stymie opposition Elections continue to equip Mexico's criminal groups with a means of acquiring access to the state, providing impunity as well as other crucial advantages in violent feuds. Polls are not the only access point, however, and addressing the nexus between the authorities and criminal actors presents a huge structural challenge 1. Introduction. In the 2011 parliamentary elections in Egypt, the first elections after the ouster of Hosni Mubarak, commentators observed that election day was surprisingly peaceful after a campaign period marred by substantial violence. 1 Research on election violence also notes that election day, even when preceded by substantial violence, is often surprisingly peaceful (Laakso, 2007: 228. The 2010-11 Ivorian crisis was a political crisis in Ivory Coast which began after Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, was proclaimed the winner of the Ivorian election of 2010, the first election in the country in 10 years.The opposition candidate, Alassane Ouattara, and a number of countries, organisations and leaders worldwide claimed Ouattara had won the election

An election night follow-up on that framework deemed undetermined the effects of every indicator but the self-evidently exacerbating behavior of Trump and some of his GOP allies The pre-election period has seen low-intensity violence like riots, violence against protestors, and sporadic communal violence. Many Ivorians fear the elections will spark an escalation of violence, as did the presidential elections before the first (2002) and second (2011) Ivorian civil war The post-election violence raised important ques-tions regarding the effects of the pre-election civic education program.The first concern was that the violence might have erased whatever positive gains were produced by NCEP II-Uraia. As noted, the program sought to promote intercommunal tolerance and to encourage the use of democratic means rather than violence to resolve disputes

This potential distortion may also boost the concentration of votes on fewer electoral alternatives. If these candidates are the ones preferred by cartels, cartels might seek to amplify this effect. Product of these distortions, the article shows that violence in Mexico has reduced electoral competitiveness in municipal elections in Mexico The 2007-2008 Kenyan crisis was a political, economic, and humanitarian crisis that erupted in Kenya after former President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner of the presidential election held on December 27, 2007. Supporters of Kibaki's opponent, Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement, alleged electoral manipulation.This was widely confirmed by international observers, as being.

The Causes Of Electoral Violence Politics Essa

The California Parole for Non-Violent Criminals and Juvenile Court Trial Requirements Initiative, also known as Proposition 57, was on the November 8, 2016, ballot in California as a combined initiated constitutional amendment and state statute.It was approved Violence erupted after the re-election of Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta this week, leaving at least 24 people dead nationwide, a rights group said Dismissing the violence that followed Kenya's previous election as mere 'tribalism' is too simplistic an explanation. As many as 1,400 people died in violence after Kenya's last presidential.

Violence Has a Long History in American Election

Over the past three decades a sizable majority of the ruling elites have been preoccupied with self-aggrandizement and cohabitation with the Communist Chinese, ignoring the gradual and now complete domination of many of the nation's institutions, and most importantly the Democrat party, by American Marxists. After a premeditated fraudulent election underwritten by the same credulou in secure elections in one country can have positive spillover effects in other countries via transnational civil society networks. Violence prevention efforts are also more successful whe

Core Causes of Jamaica’s Violence | News | Jamaica Gleaner

When a country is transiting from war to democracy and elections are seen as the culmination of the implementation of a peace agreement, the risk of election-related violence is higher. In such situations, disarmament and demobilization may be incomplete, societal division may run deep, and the economic and social effects of war often remain. An Analytic Framework for Assessing Risks of U.S. Post-Election Violence. by Kyle Murphy. November 3, 2020. Today and the days ahead are the most consequential period for the United States in at least a generation. Many around the world are watching with us to see who we are and what our choice could mean for their own struggles for responsive. Effects Of The Post Election Violence On The Hospitality Industry In Kenya Case Study : The Nairobi Serena Hotel. TARICHIA VALMY KAGWIRIA 44 PAGES (8320 WORDS) Hotel Management And Tourism Thesis . Follow Author . Save . Write a Review Report Work . Subscribe & Download . Subscribe to access this work and thousands more

Electoral Fraud or Violence: The Effect of Observers on

  1. ent Trump critics have many Americans on edge before midterms
  2. al organizations in the country's politics, with experts warning that these crimes have historically had negative effects on citizens.
  3. violence and intimidation could deter some women from participating in the 2012 elections. Exaggerated fears of violence created by poor reporting that obscures the facts and is insensitive about past incidents can also serve as a barrier to women's political participation
  4. A heated media forum Monday with the governor and the four legislative leaders featured a back and forth about the invasion of the U.S. Capitol and whether lawmakers' rhetoric contributed to it

The Contradictions of Pre-election Violence: The Effects

MANILA-- Incidents of election-related violence this year declined by 60 percent as compared to the last elections, the Philippine National Police (PNP) said Tuesday.. PNP chief Gen. Oscar Albayalde said a total of 43 incidents with 73 victims were recorded this year, as compared to the 106 incidents with 192 victims during the 2016 elections Zimbabwe - Zimbabwe - 2008 elections and aftermath: Through all of Zimbabwe's political and economic troubles, Mugabe retained the support of many African heads of state and remained popular within ZANU-PF. In December 2007 the party endorsed Mugabe as its presidential candidate in the 2008 elections. However, as the country continued its downward spiral in the months leading up to the. To estimate the causal effect of regionalist party representation, we draw on elections data from the Election Commission of India, political violence data from the Uppsala Data Conflict Program (UCDP), and socioeconomic data on tribal persons from the 44 th Round of India's National Sample Survey. The data covers the period from 1989 until 2012 inhabitants in the year before election, on a baseline homicide rate of 5.5 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. By contrast, we observe no increase in homicides in other regions.4 To the extent that violence is a policy tool used strategically to favor certain candi-dates, the strategy of violence must depend upon the electoral rules The effect of violence on elections is discussed in the subsequent section. In the conclusion, we put forward some trends and recommendations. It is interesting to note that while election-related violence involving national candidates and their supporters (Marcos vs. Macapagal in 1965, Marcos vs. Osmeñ

Electoral violence: An introduction - Sarah Birch, Ursula

  1. This study sought to understand the effects of 2007 Post Election Violence (PEV) on Children's socioeconomic wellbeing by focusing on children living in Nairobi's Kibera slum .Post election violence is a recent occurrence in Kenya when considering the magnitude with which it was witnessed in 2007.1t was important to conduct a scientific study.
  2. Mexico goes to the polls in elections marred by violence against candidates . Analysis by Rafael Romo, The vote comes as the country reels from the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic
  3. As one of us, Stephanie Burchard, found, election violence occurs in roughly 50 to 60 percent of sub-Saharan Africa's elections. Most incidents tend to be violent harassment and intimidation of.
  4. Social Media as Implements of Violence Against Women in Elections. The UN estimates that 95 per cent of aggressive behavior, harassment, abusive language and denigrating images in online spaces are aimed at women, most often by a current or former partner ().As women's participation in politics grows despite ongoing legal barriers and cultural resistance, their vulnerability to election.
  5. g presidential election with such baseless claims that he can only lose if the election is rigged against him, e.g. She spoke with about a dozen Trump fans outside a recent Trump rally in Pennsylvania. None thought the vote.
  6. A new dataset, available from authors, allows us to test the effect of this violence on voting patterns. It includes all insurgent attacks between the two elections in 113 districts of 13.

Election Violence and Voting in Emerging Democracie

  1. The fate that befell Naomi Waweru during the 2007 to 2008 post election violence. She later relocated from Molo to Ruiru, but the memories of what happened t..
  2. The Proud Boys responded enthusiastically, triumphantly sharing the president's command on social media, adding to fears that far-right and militia groups will patrol polling sites to intimidate voters and grow increasingly violent leading up to — and even after — the election. When Kathleen Belew, an assistant history professor at the.
  3. In war-torn countries, elections are held to support peacebuilding, but they sometimes trigger new violence. While peacekeeping operations (PKOs) regularly accompany electoral periods, we lack systematic knowledge on how they influence election-related violence
  4. 4 Case Study: Election Violence in Kenya. In the afternoon, the workshop broke up into three parallel breakout discussions to look at specific issues in Kenya, South Sudan, and Haiti and at what methods might allow the application of systems engineering in each case

Electoral Violence In Nigeria; History, Causes, Effects

  1. Greer worries that Election Day violence could produce a snowball effect in which extremists on the left and right clash, leading to lethal shootings as occurred this summer in Kenosha, Wisconsin.
  2. VIOLENT ELECTION LOOMS. Sunday, June 27, 2021 NewsdzeZimbabwe 0. Zanu PF is already preparing for a violent 2023 election campaign season as evidenced by utterances of its acting commissar Patrick.
  3. e why widespread violence erupted i
  4. With the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the federal government offered its immense power to the struggle to realize a more just and inclusive American society. But the act did not fulfill all of the goals of civil rights activists. It would take further grassroots mobilization, judicial precedent, and legislative action to guarantee civil rights for African Americans
  5. g from electoral events, or targeted attacks against politicians in person or online. Examples of these scenarios are widespread, from elections being postponed in Haiti and Nigeria due to violence.
  6. Major civil society efforts in Mexico promoting press freedom, access to justice, government transparency, corporate responsibility, and freedom from gender-based violence are supported in part or.
  7. Section 62.102 of the Government Code provides that a person who has been finally convicted of a felony is not eligible to serve on a jury, and that right may not be automatically restored as it is for voters. If you have any questions about these issues, please do not hesitate to contact the Elections Division at 1-800-252-2216

How Violent Protests Change Politics The New Yorke

Jewish security officials warn: 'Be prepared for violence on election day' Cohen described a multi-year rise in violent extremist violence, that includes an increase in hate crimes and other. By Kristina Jovanovski. ISTANBUL — Violence has marred the run-up to Sunday's elections in Turkey, in which President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is seeking another five-year term amid a crackdown on. Americans worried about Election Day violence and chaos are buying guns and toilet paper. AURORA, Colo. — Tabitha Converse is quietly preparing for Election Day and the weeks beyond by stocking. Mexico goes to the polls in elections marred by violence against candidates. (CNN) -- One candidate is a former boxer and promises to fight for people as hard as he did it in the ring. Another.

What is Election Violence

elasticity of total index crime (violent and prop-erty combined) is estimated to be20.30.Mar-vell and Moody (1996) also show that increases in crime (especially violent crime) predict fu-ture increases in the size of the police force. Corman and Mocan (2000) use monthly time-series data for New York City over the period 1970- 1996 Violence disrupts first Kansas election. In territorial Kansas' first election, some 5,000 so-called Border Ruffians invade the territory from western Missouri and force the election of a. Overnight protests against the election of Donald Trump as US president turned violent in Portland, Oregon. About 4,000 demonstrators gathered in the centre of the western city. Some smashed shop. EFFECT OF INCONCLUSIVE ELECTION ON THE CREDIBILITY OF ELECTORAL PROCESS IN NIGERIA Abstract The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of inconclusive election on the credibility of electoral process in Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study the researcher intend to achieve the following sub objective in other t

On the ropes: Hong Kong’s economy reels from virus pain

Resilient Voter? An Exploration of the Effects of Post

Recent state governor elections, particularly in Ekiti and Osun states, saw many instances of abuse of incumbency, widespread vote buying and other illegal voter inducements, dissemination of fake news and hate speech on social media, and acts of violence, as widely reported in the Nigerian media and also by election monitors In this publication, however, we aim to contextualize such statements nationally and internationally while also exploring potentially violent effects. To that end, we examined two distinct but overlapping time periods: January 2015 through December 2015 (entire duration of 2015) and March 2015 through March 2016 (2016 presidential election season) The work of British psychologist Dr. Graham Davey, who specializes in the psychological effects of media violence, suggests that violent media exposure can exacerbate or contribute to the development of stress, anxiety, depression and even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

(PDF) Electoral Violence In Africa: Political Violence And

On Thursday, the FBI had a message for Jewish institutions across the country: Prepare for the possibility of violence on election day. That was the main takeaway from a webinar hosted Thursday afternoon by the Secure Community Network, which coordinates security for Jewish institutions across the country. Current and former federal officials told the Jewish [ November 13, 2016 3:10 PM EST. I n the days since the presidential election, states across the country have seen increased incidents of racist or anti-Semitic vandalism and violence, many of which. Georgia election officials, mostly Republicans, say they have received threats of violence. The Republican Party of Arizona, on Twitter, twice called for supporters to be willing to die for. Oct. 28, 2017. NAIROBI — Tensions were on the rise in western Kenya and parts of Nairobi amid confusion and discrepancies surrounding the country's repeated presidential election this past. Eight years on, Kenya still failing women raped in election violence. This article is more than 5 years old. Women are seeking reparations and justice following the wave of sexual violence that.

Causes and Solutions The Daily Sta

2021 Election: Lansing mayoral candidates weigh in on gun violence, police reform. The primary election is fast approaching, and absentee ballots are set to arrive soon in the mail. Get to know. Revolutions of 1989 Fall of Communism Part of the Cold War The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 Date 21 April 1988 - 24 September 1993 (5 years, 5 months and 3 days) Location Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia Caused by Peaceful Evolution Political repression Totalitarianism Authoritarianism Democratization Conservatism One-party system Personalism. Firstly, quoting Starship Troopers as evidence that voting is violence is super weird. Secondly, there are very good reasons to suggest that democratic systems are good. One point to consider is that the era we live in now represents an incredible amount of population. We don't really have institutions built for that sort of population, nor do.

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