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# Desire line diagram in trip distribution

Desire Lines. A desire-line diagram shows the movement of phenomena from one place to another. Each line joins the places of origin and destination of a particular movement. Comments • Tuesday: Trip Distribution & Trip Assignment - Gravity Model - Intrazonal Travel Times - Friction Factors - Trip Length Frequency Diagram - Desire Lines - Started Traffic Assignment - Time of Day Analysis - Tabulation of VHT & VMT. ①Topics Covered in Training • Wednesday: Continued Traffic Assignmen The estimated OD matrix (size is 368×368) for all the zones and all the freight vehicles from the developed trip distribution model in VISUM is displayed in the form of desire line diagram in Fig. 10.11. Download : Download full-size image; Figure 10.11. Desire line diagram of OD matrices for freight trips Trip Distribution Analysis of Vadodara City (GRDJE / CONFERENCE / RACEGS-2016 / 066) recreational. The desire line diagram shows that the predominant traffic is on fateganj to fatepura, fatepura. V. DISTRIBUSI PERJALANAN 5.1. PENDAHULUAN Trip distribution adalah suatu tahapan yang mendistribusikan berapa jumlah pergerakan yang menuju dan berasal dari suatu zona. Pada tahapan ini yang diperhitungkan adalah : 1. Sistem kegiatan (Land use) 2. Sistem jaringan (Aksesibilitas) Trip distribution merepresentasikan jumlah perjalanan dari zona asal i ke zona tujuan j, biasanya ditulis dalam.

### Desire Lines - Skills A

1. Basics 3 4.16 kV Bus 1-Line : Basics 4 600 V 1-Line : Basics 5 480 V MCC 1-Line : Basics 6 7.2 kV 3-Line Diagram : Basics 7 4.16 kV 3-Line Diagram : Basics 8 AOV Elementary & Block Diagram : Basics 9 4.16 kV Pump Schematic : Basics 10 480 V Pump Schematic : Basics 11 MOV Schematic (with Block included) Basics 12 12-/208 VAC Panel Diagram
2. (2) Cumulative spot speed distribution diagrams The cumulative spot speed distribution diagram is drawn by plotting the mid speed values of column (2) of Table 5.4 on the X-axis and the % cumulative frequency values of vehicles travelling at or below the specified speed given column (5) of the Table on the Y-axis, as shown in Fig. 5.5
3. The distribution system is the vital link connecting the generators that produce electric power to the equipment that uses it. It transmits electric power from the power source to the power user. The distribution system also protects (by means of circuit breakers and fuses) itself, and its genera
4. These schemes are the frequently used and are provided in most medium voltage switchgear applications. 1. General - Functional Requirements. A protection relay is usually required to trip a circuit breaker (CB). The power required by the trip coil of the CB may range from 50 W for a small distribution CB to 3000 W for a large EHV CB
• Appendix II contains examples of single line diagrams and Section IV contains PECO's technical standards. If the interconnection application is for a new service, the GIC is required to include a site plan along with the single line diagram. The single line diagram shall include the following items, if applicable: 1
• es the number of drawings required.Generally, the overall plant single line diagrams do not include breakdowns [
• Dot maps are often used to show population distribution. Desire lines and flow lines. Desire and flow line maps show movements from one place to another: flow lines show the exact path of movement
• g power source from the utility service and/or on-site generation and their associated distribution equipment. It then follows the power flow down through the various conductors as well as any voltage transformations.
• Three Phase 208 AC: Grey= Phase 1 or Line1, Black= Line 2, Brown= Line 3, Blue = Neutral and Green= Earth Conductor. Below is the given wiring diagram of Single Phase Distribution Board with RCD in both NEC and IEC electrical wiring color codes. The same description and detailes can be used as mentioned for the above fig 1
• Distribution substation A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or subtransmission lines. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 2.4 and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility
• C. Three line AC schematic diagrams of transmission lines, transformers and bus relay protection. D. Interconnection breaker AC and DC schematics. E. Protective relay equipment list including manufacturer model number, relay ranges, manufacturer's bulletins, curves and proposed settings

• Multiple one-line diagrams can be associated with each project for better system organization and presentation. • Datablocks let you define custom formats to dynamically display input data and study results on your one-line diagrams. • Powerful drawing tools quickly create a structured, interactive one-line diagram system model 94 tripping or trip-free relay 93 field-changing contactor 92 voltage and power directional relay 91 voltage directional relay 90 regulating device 89 line switch 88 auxiliary motor or motor generator 87 differential protective relay 86 lockout relay 85 pilot communications, carrier or pilot-wire relay 84 operating mechanis Chapter 12 Transportation | Geocomputation with R is for people who want to analyze, visualize and model geographic data with open source software. It is based on R, a statistical programming language that has powerful data processing, visualization, and geospatial capabilities. The book equips you with the knowledge and skills to tackle a wide range of issues manifested in geographic data. Flow Lines, Desire and Trip Lines. Flow lines are where width of the arrow represents a flow rate also which direction the flow is moving often used for rivers discharge. Desire lines shows where a population moves from one area to another, e.g. animals migrating. Trip lines show where populations have visited an area e.g. shopping centre.

TransCAD includes comprehensive tools for trip generation, trip distribution, mode split modeling, traffic assignment, and all related matrix and network processes. TransCAD includes all of the traditional 4-step models and significant variants, quick response models with reduced data requirements, and advanced disaggregate demand models minimum trip settings and an assortment of time-current curves. With standard instantaneous trip and optional ground trip and minimum response characteristics, the Tri-Phase control will satisfy system protection and coordination needs. A wide selection of TCCs and minimum trip settings make it easily adaptable to distribution systems. Figure 1

The default feeder break is a gap in the feeder line. You can customize this graphic to show something else if you prefer. The Wire break block option, located in the One-Line Diagram section of the Options dialog box, is used for the appearance of the break. Ribbon: DM: Customization->Project Customization->Options Pulldown Menu: DM->Customization->Options->Edit Project Lis • Boundary Line • Buffer • Business Maps C • Callout Line • Cartography • Catchment Area • Desire Lines • Distance Table • Dot-Density Map • Drive-Time Ring • Drought E • Trip Distribution • Trip Generation V • Viewshed • Voronoi Diagram W • Watershed • Weighted Center Z • ZIP Code

Trip distribution is the second step in classical sequential four-step models for aggregate transport planning. Several families of trip distribution models such as Gravity Model (GM) and Intervening Opportunities Model (IOM) are presented in the literature (Bonnel 2004; Ortuzar and Willumsen 1994; Hensher and Button 2008; Wilson 1970).In GM, the number of trips between each Origin. The diagram shows the distribution of cone cells across the retina of a human eye. (a) On the diagram draw a line to show the distribution of rod cells across the retina. (2) (b) Nocturnal mammals are active at night. Describe how the number and distribution of rods and cones across the retina would differ in a nocturnal mammal from th Desire Line and Flow Line Maps. Desire and flow line maps show movements from one place to another: -. Flow lines show the exact path of movement. Desire lines show a general direction of movement.

### Freight modeling and policy analysis for megacities: the

• Figu re 4-1 shows a single-line diagram (modifie d for simplicity) of the electrical distribution syste m at an Army Ammunition Plant. Two 115kV utility lines supply the double-ended, main substation, which transforms the voltage down to 13.8kV fo r distribution throughout the facility. The utility company should participa te in the selection.
• ant component in each case can be seen.Kite diagrams Used to show percentage allow you to view how much can be tricky to.
• The electrical schematic in the above diagram is a single-line diagram, or a one-line diagram. That is how to say it more precisely. The word schematic gives an impression of a wiring diagram. If you have a wiring diagram, you can do a wiring work if you follow what is shown in the diagram precisely
• The second stage of the transportation planning process is to use the collected data to build up a transportation model. This model is the key to predicting future travel demands and network needs and is derived in four recognised stages, i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, traffic assignment and model split

The relay provides main protection for overhead lines and cable feeders in distribution networks. The relay is also used as back-up protection in applications, where an independent and redundant protection system is required. Depending on the chosen standard configuration, the relay is adapted for the protection of overhead line and cable. A general system diagram of grid-connected PV systems is shown in Fig. 6.6 and consists of three main components: PV panels (or arrays), power converters (PV inverters), and ac grid. As the power generated by the PV arrays is dc power, the power converter, which is a power electronic-based technology, is required to convert the dc power from.

Special Use Pow-R-Line Panelboards Pow-R-Line 1a-LX and Pow-R-Line 2a-LX column panelboards are designed to fit within the structural I-beam of a facility and offer branch circuits up to 100 A Pow-R-Line 1aF and Pow-R-Line 2aF fusible lighting panelboards were developed for ultra high fault currents and for use in selectiv the telephone line or other customer-owned equipment, PG&E will bill the customer for the labor and travel expenses. When the generator's personnel request alarm, telephone, transfer trip, and/or telemetering service/circuits from the telephone company, the generator' B) Line Connections 1) All of the in and out connections on the block are 3/8-24 thread with an SAE flare for a standard 3/16 brake line.The supplied tube nuts can be flared onto any 3/16 brake lines; however, it is not necessary to use these as long the lines you are using have a 3/8-24 fitting already flared on These mainly constitutes of line to ground which is the most common fault (6570%) , line - to line (5-10%) and double line to ground (15-20%) faults. In line to ground fault, a conductor makes contact with earth or ground. A line to line fault occurs when two conductors make contacts with each other mainly while swinging of lines due to winds

sir, diagram is ok. we have 3 phase connection. living hall on phase 1 and bed room on phase 2 and kitchen on 3 phase. if i connect my invertor on one single line from invertor to tubes and fans it will work. when all 3 phase current (grid) fails no problem. my invertor was connected to phase 1` for charging. during night phase 2 (bedroom. The transmission line and load was modeled using distributed parameters line and three-phase load block sets respectively. Fig.2 shows the developed model of transmission line and load. From Fig.3, shows the internal logic of over current relay developed using flip-flops, relational operators etc. Table separate adjustable contacts. Typical settings are 8.5 psi for a pressure trip and -1.5 for a vacuum trip setting. NOTE: A zero pressure reading that does not change with temperature could be indicative of a leak. A leak will allow moisture to enter the transformer that will degrade the insulation and shorten the life of the transformer

Again, the primary importance of organization is: (1) to create a clear deposition, in case you need to use it at trial; and (2) to cover everything that you desire to cover. §473 Sample Outlines: Checklist. For substantive areas of the examination, your outline will have to fit the facts of your case For outdoor distribution, 14.4 kV through 34.5 kV. S&C Recloser Bypass Disconnects are station-type devices used to bypass and isolate automatic circuit reclosers for repair or routine maintenance. Recloser Bypass Disconnects are used in combination with a separately mounted S&C Loadbuster Disconnect ® Switch to bypass and isolate automatic. We have one circuit breaker (40 A) where our electrical service enters our house, then it is divided into a 32A line for level one and a 25A for level two.The main circuit breaker (40A) trips every several hours, but the other two circuit breakers (the 32A and the 25A) don't trip. I am thinking the problem is that the 32A breaker and the 25A. a trip-planning service and discounts on travel and dining. For further information, call (800)25-LEXUS. 7 Other Benefits and Assistance O THER B ENEFITS ANDA SSISTANCE Quality Control You may have noticed a few miles on the odometer BBB AUTO LINE will. T Owner's Manual Supplement . Owner's Manual

To download the Owner Manual, Warranty Guide or Scheduled Maintenance Guide, select your vehicle information: Year *. Choose Year 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996. Year cannot be blank. Make*. Choose Make marketing channels: A marketing channel is a set of practices or activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods, and to move goods, from the point of production to the point of consumption and, as such, which consists of all the institutions and all the marketing activities in the marketing process. intermediaries: An intermediary is a. a ground fault trip function. The ground fault trip function can be set to a different pick-up point than the ground fault alarm (typically higher), and will trip the circuit breaker after remaining in pick-up range for the specified time delay. • Ground fault settings for trip unit types WLETU727, WLETU745, and WLETU74

Low-voltage trip and close circuits still exist for control purposes, but the actual energy source for rapid tripping/reclosing cycles comes from the AC line itself. The principle of automatic reclosing may be applied to transmission lines as well as distribution lines, but new challenges exist at this level of a power grid Comprehensive Mobility Plan for Allahabad Draft Final Repor Typical Controller Markings Typical Elementary Diagram IEC Typical Controller Markings Typical Elementary Diagram Table 4 Control and Power Connections for Across-the-Line Starters, 600 V or less (From NEMA standard ICS 2-321A.60) 1-Phase 2-Phase, 4-Wire 3-Phase Line Markings L1, L2 L1, L3: Phase 1 L2, L4: Phase 2 L1, L2, L3 Ground, when use undervoltage trip unit. The solution consists of using time-delayed undervoltage trip units, with a reaction time which is longer than the short-circuit trip time of the equipment located downstream. Even without a time delay, undervoltage trip units should offer immunity against undervoltages lasting approximately te G&W Electric's Viper-S ® solid dielectric, three phase recloser combines the time proven reliability of electronically controlled, vacuum fault interrupters with the maintenance benefits of a solid dielectric insulated device. This recloser is designed with a mechanically ganged operator for three phase automatic or manual trip operation providing overcurrent protection for systems rated up.

U.S. AutoForce brings together more than 100 years of experience as an industry leader in the distribution of tires, undercar parts, and lubricants to independent tire retailers, auto repair shops, and automotive dealerships. With comprehensive product offerings, expanded capabilities, and combined distribution, U.S. AutoForce is the preferred. A distance relay is a fundamental device that trips the circuit breaker in the event of a fault. In low rating power systems circuits, the relay itself can trip the circuit, without the circuit breaker. The relay along with the circuit breaker together are used for the protection of transmission and distribution systems GES-6153 Mine Duty Molded-Case Circuit Breakers Types TE3 and TE13 Premium Duty Magnetic Trip Time-current. GES-6155 Mine Duty Type TJ3 TJ13 (100-600A); Magnetic Trip Time-current Curves. GES-6157 Mine Duty Type TK TK13 (300-1200A); Magnetic Trip Time-current Curves Advanced Recloser Control. The SEL-651R offers exceptional protection and communications capabilities for Automatic Network Reconfiguration, single- and three-phase tripping, and other distribution automation needs. The SEL-651R is the first recloser control to support IEEE 1547-2018 and fast islanding detection for distributed energy resource.

### Trip Distribution Analysis of Vadodara City by GRD

LLS® The LLS® family of single gap SF6 full load break interrupter attachments offers the most flexibility when switching transmission, sub-transmission, or distribution lines. It is the most capable interrupter available on the market with load breaking, line dropping, and loop splitting capabilities listed below Detailed Design and Engineering is a development of all required construction documents and drawings up to AFC (Approved for Construction) stage for the construction, and detailed bill of materials (BOM) for the bulk material procurement based on the basic engineering or front end engineering design (FEED) package. The Detailed Design and Engineering is limited to the verification of the.

Introduction: For supplying a load in excess of the rating of an existing transformer, two or more transformers may be connected in parallel with the existing transformer. The transformers are connected in parallel when load on one of the transformers is more than its capacity. The reliability is increased with parallel operation than to hav TM 5-811-6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. Purpose a. General: This manual provides engineering data and criteria for designing electric power plants where the size and characteristics of the electri As shown in Fig. 3.127, force-feed systems use a small rotary pump to move liquid from the bearing housing reservoir, through a cooler and then back to the bearings.Hydrodynamic lubricated bearings (sleeve bearings) may require a pressurized lube oil system.The pressurized lube oil system is normally designed to supply oil at a suitable pressure to the pump bearings, driver, and any other. 48 Residential wiring diagram 50 Overview of the installation and related wiring accessories standard 52 Consumer units & Din-Rail equipment by Legrand Group 54 Wiring accessories by Legrand Group 56 Energy distribution 58 Putting a stop to energy waste 60 From technical rooms to workstations 62 Residential multimedia network MCCB is an automatic electrical device used to protect the electrical equipment from overload, short circuit, instantaneous over current and earth fault. It is an advanced version of MCB (Miniature circuit breaker). It is available from 32 Amps to 1600 Amps with the voltage range of 230V to 1.1kV

200ft 1/4 inch Drip Irrigation Tubing Blank Distribution Tubing Drip Irrigation Hose Garden Watering Tube Line for Garden Irrigation System 4.4 out of 5 stars 629 \$27.99 \$ 27 . 99 (\$0.14/Feet Ashkan Javanmardi | Canada | Proposal Engineer at ABB | • Awarded as the BEST Employee of the year • B.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering • Secured \$0.5 MUSD for Company and appreciated by client for troubleshooting • 12+ years of progressive experience in MV and HV Substations (AIS /GIS), transmission lines, industrial electrical utility systems, instrumentation and automation of.

I-Line Circuit Breakers. PowerPact B-frame circuit breakers are available in I-Line construction for easy installation and removal in I-Line panelboard and switchboard applications. I-Line circuit breakers use blow-on type line side connectors. In case of a short circuit, increased magnetic flux causes the plug-on connectors of the. Such DC power distribution systems distribute DC power from electrical sources to various vessel services and propulsion loads through a DC bus architecture along with power electronic converters. This distribution setup is used in lieu of a traditional AC main switchboard and transformers

-Designing control and protection one line diagram, panels front view, trip tables for about 10 GIS and AIS substations from 63 up to 400 -Gaining deep knowledge of the principles and practice of protection philosophy of line, transformer, busbar,.. through attending training courses and profound studies of Siemens, ABB relays service manua Anti-compound lines 20. Glad hands 21. Supply (emergency) line 22. Control (service) line 23. Spring brake modulator valve 24. Tractor protection valve 25. Stop lamp switch Section 9—Pre-Trip and Post-Trip Air Brake Inspection 79 Vehicle Inspection 80 Air Brake Practical Test 8 Step 2: With the appropriate Earth Fault Loop Tester, connect the test leads to the Line, Neutral and Earth terminals. Step 3: Measure and write down the test results on the Schedule Of Test Results. If the circuit is RCD protected than you will have to select the No trip function of the Megger 1553 to avoid nuisance tripping of the RCD

The Desire2Learn portal offers you the opportunity to view award-winning eLearning programs. Please log in to view courses and take some time to familiarize yourself. MSU expects that you will respect the rights of faculty and other students as you participate in the educational process. Participating in an Desire2Learn course means that you may have access to personal information and academic work produced by other students and faculty members, such as discussion board postings, drafts of papers and other work produced in the course

• CT/VT signle line diagram • Relaying and metering logic diagram • Trip logic diagram • GIS/AIS Interlock table and logic diagram • Instrument transformer sizing calculations • Module data check list with IEC addressing • BCU IO list and estimation of test switches • Synchronizing concept/logic diagram for control syste Line Diagrams A line (ladder) diagram is a diagram that shows the logic of an electrical circuit or system using standard symbols. A line diagram is used to show the relationship between circuits and their components but not the actual location of the components. Line diagrams provide a fast, easy understanding of the connections an

The impact of this construction on trackwork design is limited to the interfaces with the supply and return power distribution system. Transit Traction Power 11-3 The electrical sectionalization of the distribution system usually takes place at the substation for all travel directions Next, draw a vertical line to the point where it intersects the curve and then draw a horizontal line to the left side of the graph to find the trip time. The total clearing time of a circuit breaker is the sum of the breaker's sensing time, unlatching time, mechanical operating time and arcing time As Table 1 shows, most of the studies used either descriptive statistics or advanced statistical techniques to perform their analysis. However, mainly bar charts, pie charts, scatter plots, line graphs, or simple tables were used to visualise data such as the percentage of used travel modes and the stops/number of legs per trip chain, sometimes in combination with the activities at each stop times line to neutral voltage normally expected for unfaulted phases on a delta system when there is a single-line-to-ground fault. In extreme cases, tripping at the grid and terminal of the transmission line must be delayed to ensure that the remote consumer end is tripped first by direct transfer trip facilities. 3.1.13 Required Dat

5-2 Voltage Distortion Limits for Distribution Systems (120 Volts -69000 Volts) 21 6-1 Recommended Test Instruments for Conducting a Site Survey 32 7-1 Inspecting Equipment Bonds 36 7-2 Measuring Neutral Current and Voltage 36 7-3 Measuring Power-Line Voltage 3 (This foreword is not a part of American National Standard Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams, Y32.2-1975 [IEEE Std 315-1975]) This American National Standard is a revision and expansion of American National Standard Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams, Y32.2-1970 (IEEE Std 315-1971) D.1cho Single Line Diagram Sok 61 D.2cho Site Plan Sok 62 D.3ird's Eye View of Sokcho Battery Energy Storage System B 62 D.4cho Battery Energy Storage System Sok 63 D.5 BESS Application in Renewable Energy Integration 63 D.6W Yeongam Solar Photovoltaic Park, Republic of Korea 10 M 6 Surge Protective Devices (SPD) are used to protect the electrical installation, which consists of the consumer unit, wiring and accessories, from electrical power surges known as transient overvoltages. They are also used to protect sensitive electronic equipment connected to the installation, such as computers, televisions, washing machines.

### Chapter 3&4 - SlideShar

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), is available in 128-bit key, 192-bit key, and 256-bit key versions. Triple Data encryption Standard (3DES), 3DES has three keying options, where all three keys are different (keying option 1), two of the three keys are the same (keying option 2), or all three keys are the same (keying option 3) to maintain backward compatibility with DES The three phase supply from the distribution line transformer is given to the home or building's point of service. Most industrial and commercial services consists of three phase systems that are operated typically at 415V phase to phase and 230V phase to neutral. Three phase system consists of three conductors unlike single conductor in. Trip Circuit Breakers Phase failure relays are often used to control a shunt trip circuit breaker. When this is done, care must be taken to insure that the shunt trip circuit always has an adequate source available. This can be accomplished by using the diagram below. If a phase failure occurs on L2 or L3, the shunt trip

### Standard tripping schemes and trip circuit supervision

In this kind of fault, both the two lines get in touch with each other through the ground. So, there is a 10% probability for faults. Open Circuit Faults. The open-circuit faults mainly occur because of the malfunction of one otherwise more conductors used in the power system. The open-circuit faults diagram is shown below 480/277v distribution panelboard surface mounted motor generator ground connection transfer switch ats = automatic transfer mts = manual transfer poles and rating as noted power transformer voltages, windings and size as indicated circuit breaker - molded case type <frame amps>/<trip amps>/<poles> current transforme conversion, transmission or distribution substation. A MV/ LV transformer electrical substation consists, therefore, of the set of devices dedicated to the transformation of the voltage supplied by the distribution network at medium voltage (e.g. 20 kV), into voltage values suitable for the power supply of the low voltage lines (e.g. 400 V)

### Single Line Drawing Guidelines - Electrical Engineering Centr

For remotely switching off residual current circuit-breakers, miniature circuit breaker/DI and RCBO combination switches, remote de-energization with one or more parallel dry contacts, e.g. button with max. 3 A rated operation current at 250 V, observe max. pushbutton voltage, remote trip testing with Z-FW remote testing module, can be retrofitted and wired to the appropriate residual current. Description: A line graph showing the same data as Figure 4.14. Instead of shaded areas, a series of 4 lines representing the 4 sets data creating a smoother shape. Each dataset has a different type of line, for example, dashed, dotted, or solid. The lines at the beginning and end do not intersect the X-axis

A substation bus scheme is the arrangement of overhead bus bar and associated switching equipment. Photo: ENMAS GB Power Systems. The electrical substation is a junction point where two or more transmission lines terminate. In actuality, most EHV and HV substations can be the point where more than half a dozen of lines terminate ANSI/IEEE function codes also find application in relay trip circuit diagrams. Consider the following example of an electromechanical time-overcurrent (function 51) relay set, monitoring current through three power conductors and tripping the circuit breaker (device 52) if the current in any line exceeds safe levels Typical Wiring Diagrams..... 27 1670CT0701 3. Standards and Ratings Class 1670 Standards and Ratings NF circuit breaker panelboards are for use on AC systems. • Line lugs are suitable for 75⁰C copper or aluminum wire and L-frame circuit breakers are available with shunt trip, ground fault shunt trip, undervoltage trip, time delay. For usual working, the voltage across the trip coil is '0', as the Load's body is isolated from the supply line. When an Earth fault happens on the load due to the interaction of line wire to the metal body, a current will run through the fault to the ground distribution systems. A significant increase in DER is expected to come on line in the near future. As the penetration level of DER increases, the effect of DER may no longer be considered minimal. As DER become prevalent in the distribution system, equipment rating capability and coordination of protection systems merit a closer investigation with the line or a section of it. A crossarm holds the wires up on the pole. The neutral wire is below the transformer and acts as a line back to the substation and balances out the amount of electricity or load on the system. Lightning arrestors protect the pole and equipment from lightning strikes. The secondary wire carries the lower voltag