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Akathisia dystonia and tardive dyskinesia

Parkinsonism Antipsychotics Dystonia Akathisia Akinesia

The prevalence of tardive dystonia, tardive dyskinesia

The prevalence numbers were for tardive dystonia 13.4%, tardive dyskinesia 39.7%, parkinsonism 36.1%, akathisia 9.3% and pseudoakathisia 12.9% Tardive dyskinesia (TD) refers to all syndromes that occur after prolonged exposure to treatment with dopamine -blocking agents. It includes tardive dystonia and akathisia but classic TD refers to the stereotypic movements of the face, limbs, and trunk

tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia, and tardive akathisia, and the need for continued antipsychoti c treatment. At a minimum, this system must include detection, documentation, reporting and evaluation provisions . To facilitate the integration of the monitoring system within the facility's operations, th Dyskinesia is a general term for any abnormal involuntary movement. Tardive dyskinesia is a term used for abnormal involuntary movements that begin after taking certain medications used to treat nausea or emotional problems. Tardive dyskinesia sometimes resembles chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, tics or tremor The bradykinesia, limb stiffness, and mask-like facies seen in Parkinsonism are a social and functional handicap. The restlessness and agitation associated with akathisia have similar effects. Patients with tardive dyskinesia may not be distressed by their symptoms, but family and relatives may find them distressing Tardive dyskinesia is irreversible. I have severe forms of it including tardive dystonia, tardive akathesia, tardive myoclonus, tardive tourretticism and tardive psychosis which is a study criteria being researched by a clinicl neurologist. All of these have been clinically confirmed

The main difference between Dystonia and Tardive Dyskinesia is that Dystonia is a state of abnormal muscle tone resulting in muscular spasm and abnormal posture whereas Tardive Dyskinesia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the face and jaw Antipsychotics and other dopamine-antagonist drugs can also cause motor side effects such as akathisia, (tardive) dyskinesia, and dystonia. These syndromes share a debilitating impact on the functioning and well-being of patients Acute dystonic reaction and tardive dystonia are most commonly the result of side effects from a type of medication which is prescribed to treat schizophrenia and psychosis called a 'dopamine receptor blocker' (DRB). Some DRBs are also used to treat nausea and dizziness

The term tardive dyskinesia (TD) was first introduced in 1964 by Faurbye, highlighting the delay between the initiation of treatment with the offending drug and the onset of the abnormal movements (hence, the name tardive). 2 The term is now used to define any tardive hyperkinetic movement disorder, such as stereotypy, akathisia, dystonia, tremor, tics, chorea, and myoclonus Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of antipsychotic medications.These drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. TD causes stiff, jerky movements of your face and. Adverse Reactions: o Tardive dyskinesia (tongue) o EPS (parkinsonism, akathisia (restlessness), dystonia (muscle twitching). o NMS (EPS, high fever, autonomic disturbances). o Seizures Patient Teaching: o May take 6-8 weeks to take effect. o Advise the client to rise slowly. o Contraindications: hypersensitivity, depression, Parkinson's, coronary artery disease, hyper/hypotension TDs may be differentiated from acute movement disorders that commonly occur in the same patient groups. The acute movement disorders that occur as manifestations of effects of neuroleptics and..

Extrapyramidal Symptoms II (Dystonia, Akathisia, Tardive

Specific TDs resulting from long-term use of dopamine antagonists (eg, orofacial dyskinesia, tardive akathisia, tardive blepharospasm, tardive dystonia, tardive myoclonus, and tardive tics) may. Finding a doctor with special training in movement disorders can make a big difference in your treatment. The DMRF maintains a directory of physicians and healthcare providers with experience and/or interest in treating people with dystonia. Please note that the professionals listed in this directory vary in their experience and specific areas of expertise and have voluntarily chosen to be listed

  1. In the past, tardive dyskinesia was used to describe the classical rhythmic oral-facial movements but is now renamed as tardive stereotypies. Tardive dyskinesia also includes tardive chorea, tardive dystonia, tardive akathisia, tardive tics, tardive myoclonus and tardive tremor. It is important to realise that up to 14% of non-medicated.
  2. Of these, 18% had akathisia, 5% pseudoakathisia, 29% tardive dyskinesia, 8% persistent tardive dyskinesia, and 27% Parkinsonism. No movement disorder was seen in 44%, 36% had one and 20% had more than one movement disorder. Plasma neuroleptic levels at the time of clinical assessment were measured by the radioreceptor technique
  3. Tardive dystonia due to D2 antagonists or other agents is a potentially severe extrapyramidal side effect emerging after long-term drug treatment, prevalent but not limited to psychiatric populations. Its course is often deteriorating, and available treatments are frequently far from satisfying. It presents with sustained muscle contractions, abnormal postures, and repetitive twisting.
  4. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Tardive Dyskinesia, Tardive Dystonia, and Tardive Akathisia A sample chapter from Dr. Breggin's 1997 book Brain-Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry . braindisabling.pd

Tardive dystonia. Sustained muscle contraction, causing abnormal posture . Focal, segmental, or generalized dystonia. Tardive akathisia. An inner sense of restlessness, causing an inability to be still. Tardive tremor. Shaking movements, usually noticed in the hands and arms. Tardive myoclonus. Quick muscle jerks that cannot be controlled tardive; idiopathic; oromandibular dystonia; comparison; Tardive dystonia, a variant of tardive dyskinesia, consists of persistent dystonic movements, usually after months or years of neuroleptic exposure.1 Its clinical characteristics have been well described.2-7 Most of the patients have a focal onset involving the craniocervical region.1-4 7Oro-facial-lingual (OFL) stereotypic movements.

Glossary of Movement Disorder Terms Neurolog

The key difference between tardive dyskinesia and dystonia is that the tardive dyskinesia is always secondary to the long-term use of neuroleptics, but dystonia may be due to various other causes. Further, dystonia is the abnormal muscle tone resulting in muscle spasms or abnormal postures.Whereas, tardive dyskinesia refers to uncontrollable mouthing and lip-smacking grimaces that develop. ated with psychiatric drugs; parkinsonism, akathisia, acute dystonia, tardive dyskinesia and tardive dysto-nia. These will be considered in turn. Parkinsonism tends to have an insidious onset and often starts after several weeks of antipsychotic treat-ment. It consists of a triad of bradykinesia, tremor an Treating tardive dyskinesia, stereotypies or akathisia 1. Attempt DRBD discontinuation or replacement with less DRBD potency (quetiapine or clozapine). Work with psychiatrist. * warn patient of possible worsening 2 . Add VMAT2 inhibitor and titrate as indicated, aiming for reasonable therapeutic goal. 3. Add a secondary drug, based on your.

Tardive dyskinesia and tardive akathisia occur more chronically with long-term use of neuroleptics . Dystonia is one of the most commonly reported acute-onset drug-induced EPS, and it is characterized by involuntary intermittent muscle contractions resulting in sustained abnormal posturing or repetitive movements affecting different body parts Dystonia in adults tends to stay focal to a specific body area rather than involve multiple body parts. Focal tardive dystonia often affects the facial muscles, often with akathisia (feelings of inner restlessness). Symptoms of focal dystonia can occur days or years after drug exposure. Symptoms may respond to sensory tricks. Common. Sensory Changes in Dystonia • neck pain in cervical dystonia patients with tardive dyskinesia • painful/painless legs moving toes syndrome • painful arms moving fingers syndrome Akathisia • a feeling of inner restlessness and a compelling need to be i 33 % in classic tardive dyskinesia 12 % in tardive dystonia 8 % in tardive akathisia (Burke. 1989) does continuing DRBs worsen tardive syndrome? symptoms -No (Casey. 1986, Gardos. 1988) natural course -? (Kang. 1986) does symptomatic treatment of tardive syndrome change its natural course???

Tardive akathisia; Orofacial dyskinesia; Tardive dystonia; Tardive blepharospasm; Tardive tics; Tardive myoclonus; Go to: Evaluation. There are numerous rating scales to determine the presence and severity of tardive dyskinesia. The most widely used instrument is the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) Tardive dyskinesia also includes tardive chorea, tardive dystonia, tardive akathisia, tardive tics, tardive myoclonus, and tardive tremor. Clinical Stereotypies can be defined as an involuntary, coordinated, patterned, repetitive, rhythmic, purposeless, but seemingly purposeful or ritualistic, movement or utterance presence of akathisia. We identified patients as having DM, using 1 of 3 methods: 1) the patient was diagnosed by an endocrinologist in the MUHC metabolic clinic; 2) the patient was currently Can J Psychiatry, Vol 49, No 6, June 2004 399 Diabetes, Tardive Dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, and Akathisia in Schizophreni

Tardive disorder (TDS) include tardive dyskinesia, tardive akathisia, tardive dystonia, tardive tics, tardive myoclonus and tardive tremor. Tardive dyskinesia is the most common TDS, and the best understood. TDS are more common in people with longer duration of medication exposure, who are older than 55 years, or who have a history of alcohol. Objective. Four types of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders: tardive dyskinesia (TD), parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia, subtypes of TD (orofacial and limb truncal dyskinesia), subtypes of parkinsonism (rest tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia), as well as a principal-factor of the movement disorders and their subtypes, were examined for association with variation in 10. Tardive dystonia is a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions that frequently cause twitching and repetitive movements, or abnormal posture . Grimacing, torticollis, retrocollis, laryngeal dystonia, and the Pisa syndrome are characteristic movements of tardive dystonia . Tardive Akathisia Other drug-induced movement disorders including tardive dyskinesia, akathisia (a subjective sensation of restlessness) or myoclonus may accompany tardive dystonia, and have led many researchers to classify tardive dystonia as a variant of tardive dyskinesia. Unlike tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia is seen in children as well as adults

Tardive dystonia, like tardive dyskinesia, develops after long-term use of antipsychotics (or other dopamine receptor antagonists). Tardive dystonia is often missed or misdiagnosed. It is not well known how often it occurs, but percentages around 10% have been reported for patients on long-term antipsychotics, if the less affected cases are als Tardive dyskinesia, with its characteristic delayed onset, must be distinguished from acute drug-induced movement disorders, including dystonia, akathisia, and parkinsonism. It is well known that patients who react to antipsychotics with acute extrapyramidal symptoms have a greater risk for developing TD later in the treatment course, and that. Major subtypes of tardive syndromes include tardive dyskinesia, characterized by orobuccolingual, truncal, or appendicular, choreiform movements; tardive dystonia, characterized by sustained, stereotyped muscle spasms of a twisting or turning character; and tardive akathisia, characterized by an inner sense of restlessness or unease Some studies estimate there are already 250,000-400,000 people in the United States who have tardive dyskinesia. Different studies quote different rates of tardive dyskinesia ranging from 15%-20% for people using the drugs for more than three years, to as much as 40%-70% of elderly people with long term use

Tardive akathisia may occur in association with typical orolingual tardive dyskinesia or tardive dystonia. Movements affecting the legs are most common, such as marching in place while standing, and while sitting crossing/uncrossing the legs, rapidly abducting and adducting the legs, or pumping the legs up and down Specific TDs resulting from long-term use of dopamine antagonists (eg, orofacial dyskinesia, tardive akathisia, tardive blepharospasm, tardive dystonia, tardive myoclonus, and tardive tics) may occur concurrently. Tardive akathisia is manifested by repetitive tapping, squirming, and marching movements Tardive akathisia usually exists along with tardive dystonia. The movements of withdrawal emergent syndromes (as described above in the Symptoms section) are brief, jerky, and irregular (choreic). These movements typically flow from one body part to another in a random manner and usually involve the arms, legs, trunk, and neck The variant tardive dystonia involves painful muscle spasms and the variant tardive akathisia involving inner agitation that drives the person to move his body for relief. Tardive akathisia can feel like torture. These disorders tend to become irreversible, especially if the drug is continued after the initial symptoms appear

A study of the four extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia, was performed in the Netherlands Antilles, a well-defined catchment area with only one psychiatric hospital. The population under study (N = 194; mean age 53.1) was mainly Afro-Caribbean, and most patients were chronic Unlike tardive dyskinesia, which occurs after several months or years of treatment, akathisia may arise after a single dose of a medication. Akathisia may be described as acute, occurring shortly after starting a medication, or tardive, occurring many months or years after starting the medication Background Tics are the hallmark of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, TS patients may have a particular vulnerability to develop other movement disorders (MDs), such as dystonia, chorea, stereotypy, and other hyperkinetic disorders that may be wrongly attributed to tics. Materials and methods We studied a cohort of 201 patients with motor and phonic tics associated with TS to determine if they. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in general and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in particular have been extensively studied in schizophrenia. Even though a number of studies suggest that bipolar patients experience higher rates of EPS (parkinsonism, dystonia, akathisia) and TD compared to patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia [1, 2], research within the bipolar disorder (BD) population has been limited Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) are drug-induced movement disorders that occur due to antipsychotic blockade of the nigrostriatal dopamine tracts. These blockades can lead to increased cholinergic activity, resulting in acute dystonia, acute akathisia, antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia (TD), tardive dystonia, and tardive akathisia

Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia | Download Table

Antipsychotic-Induced Movement Disorder

Akathisia & Tardive Dyskinesia - Neurology - MedHel

Tardive dysphrenia is one of many neuroleptic-induced tardive syndromes, including tardive dyskinesia and the other already recognized tardive dystonia, tardive akathisia . More recently, the Brazilian psychiatrist Leopoldo Hugo Frota, Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, extended the original Fahn's. Tardive dyskinesia has various forms. One type, called tardive dystonia causes painful, tortuous muscle spasms. The movements of this type tend to be slow, writhing motions. Another kind called tardive akathisia agitates people in agonizing ways, driving them to move their arms or legs or to pace Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a syndrome which includes a group of iatrogenic movement disorders caused due to a blockade of dopamine receptors. The movement disorders include akathisia, dystonia, buccolingual stereotypy, myoclonus, chorea, tics and other abnormal involuntary movements which are commonly caused by the long-term use of typical antipsychotics

Difference Between Dystonia and Tardive Dyskinesia Signs

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements, which may include grimacing, sticking out the tongue, or smacking the lips. Additionally, there may be rapid jerking movements or slow writhing movements. In about 20% of people with TD, the disorder interferes with daily functioning. Tardive dyskinesia occurs in some people as a result of long-term. However, tardive dystonia often coexists with other tardive movements, so it is not uncommon to see patients with both tardive dystonia and the classic orobuccolingual movements of tardive dyskinesia [11, 14, 16], or patients with tardive dyskinesia and akathisia or even blepharospasm . Because of this considerable overlap, and because the. Background Antipsychotics remain the mainstay of drug intervention in the management of schizophrenia. However, long-term treatment with antipsychotics is associated with a variety of movement disorders, the most disabling of which is tardive dyskinesia (TD), which occurs in up to 50% of patients hospitalized with chronic schizophrenia

The psychopharmacology of catatonia, neuroleptic malignant

  1. View 359363432-Tardive-Dyskinesia-tekst-2.doc from PSY MISC at Missouri State University, Springfield. Tardive Dyskinesia Synonyms, Key Words, and Related Terms: buccolingual, orofacial dyskinesia
  2. [i]nvoluntary athetoid or choreiform movements (lasting at least a few weeks) generally of the tongue, lower face and jaw, and extremities (but sometimes involving the pharyngeal, diaphragmatic, or trunk muscles) (American Psychiatric Association 2013b, p. 712), whereas tardive dystonia and tardive akathisia resemble their acute.
  3. Abstract: Involuntary movement disorders were investigated in a psychiatric hospital in Japan. The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 9.9% and four clinical variants of tardive dyskinesia could be classified. Of the 716 patients, tardive dystonia was identified in 15 cases, tardive akathisia in one, respiratory dyskinesia in two and rabbit syndrome in 17
  4. ator, depending on cas

Tardive dystonia Dystonia U

Akathisia yA feeling of inner restlessness and desire to move followed by the physical expression of this feeling yTardive dyskinesia and yTardive dystonia (Tardive akathisia, myoclonus, and tremor have also been reported) April 5, 2013 31 Tardive Dyskinesia (TD Tardive dystonia is a more severe form of tardive dyskinesia in which slower twisting movements of the neck and trunk muscles are prominent. Signs & Symptoms. Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by involuntary and abnormal movements of the jaw, lips and tongue. Typical symptoms include facial grimacing, sticking out the tongue, sucking or fish.

An Update on Tardive Dyskinesia: From Phenomenology to

Tardive dystonia, or drug-induced dystonia Tardive dystonia caused by intake of certain drugs. Most commonly, these are antipsychotics or anti nausea drugs which block the dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is found in the basal ganglia and is responsible for normal movement. It has been hypothesized that these drugs can activate an underlying susceptibilit Of the aforementioned tardive syndromes, the more prevalent presentations are classical tardive dyskinesia 30%, tardive akathisia 20%, and tardive dystonia 5-15% of the cases. Tics, myoclonus, tremors, pain, and other tardive syndromes are far less frequent or chronic tardive dyskinesia (tardive syndrome). Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, often disabling movement disorder, such as stereotype/classical oro-buccal-lingual-facial dyskinesia, tardive akathisia, tardive dystonia, tardive chorea, tardive tremor and tardive Parkinsonism, tardive myoclonus, tardive oculogyric deviations

Tardive forms of dyskinesia (TD), dystonia (TDt), akathisia (TA), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TGTS), myoclonus (TM), and parkinsonism (TP) are described. Moreover, pharmacological and topographical subtypes of TD are discussed. While TD, TDt, and TA are clearly delineated syndromes, there are limited data on TGTS, TM, and the questionable TP Classic tardive dyskinesia Stereotypic oro-bucco-lingual, digital or truncal movements Tardive dystonia Sustained muscle contraction, causing abnormal posture Focal, segmental, or generalized dystonia Tardive akathisia An inner sense of restlessness, causing an inability to be still Tardive tremor Shaking movements, usually noticed in the hands.

New Studies Show Long-Term Use of Neuroleptic Medications

Tardive Dyskinesia: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatmen

  1. The pharmacology of tardive versus acute akathisia is clearly different, with tardive akathisia often behaving like tardive stereotypy. In one study it was found 34% of tardive akathisia occurred within one year and two-thirds of these patients had persistent tardive dyskinesia at a mean follow-up of 4.2 years
  2. The word dyskinesia refers to a broad range of abnormal involuntary movements including chorea, athetosis and dystonia. There are a variety of abnormal movements which would not be considered dyskinesias, including: akathisia, compulsive movements, mannerisms, stereotypic movements, tics or tremors
  3. a) Parkinsonism b) Akathisia c) Dystonia d) Tardive dyskinesia The correct answer is C Explanation The side effects of antipsychotic medications are as follows: Parkinsonism: involves tremor, increased muscle tone, bradykinesia or akinesia, drooling, postural instability, loss of spontaneity, micrographia, seborrhea
  4. Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological movement disorder that is caused by the long-term use of a certain type of medications called neuroleptics. Neuroleptic drugs are usually prescribed for psychiatric conditions, although they may be used to treat gastrointestinal or neurological conditions in some cases. Tardive dyskinesia is primarily characterized by repetitive involuntary movements of the.
  5. Tardive dystonia is a particular type of tardive dyskinesia. 'Dystonia' is a medical term that specifi cally describes involuntary slow, writhing movements caused by incorrect signals to your muscles from your brain. Dystonia may have a variety of causes, but when it's an unwanted side effect of medication it's referred to as 'tardive dystonia.
  6. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is the best known of the tardive syndromes and is characterized by hyperkinetic involuntary movements of the tongue, jaw, face, trunk, and extremities in the form of chorea, dystonia, athetosis, akathisia, stereotypies, and very rarely tremor

Adverse Reactions oTardive dyskinesia tongue o EPS

  1. medication-induced acute akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia/tardive akathisia, medication-induced postural tremor, other medication-induced movement disorder, antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, and other adverse effects of medication. 5 • Tardive dyskinesia is a type of movement disorder that occurs secondary to therapy wit
  2. As a modern term, tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially permanent neurological hyperkinetic movement disorder that occurs after months or years of taking psychotropic drugs. Several distinct forms of TD exist, specifically tardive akathisia, tardive blepharospasm, tardive dystonia, tardive gait, tardive myoclonus, tardive tremor, and tardive.
  3. akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia/tardive akathisia, medication-induced postural tremor, other medication-induced movement disorder, antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, and other adverse effects of medication.5 • Tardive dyskinesia is a type of movement disorder that occurs secondary to therapy with centrall

The form of tardive dyskinesia, seen in our two patients, is chiefly manifested by sustained, involuntary, often twisting movements, hence the term tardive dystonia (20,21). In one study of 42 patients with tardive dystonia, only five (12%) had remission after being treated with antipsychotic drugs for periods ranging from 3 days to 1.5 years (20) medication-induced acute akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia/tardive akathisia, medication-induced postural tremor, other medication-induced movement disorder, antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, and other adverse effects of medication.5 Tardive dyskinesia is a type of movement disorder that occurs secondary to therapy wit Apart from tardive stereotypy, various other subtypes of tardive dyskinesia resulting from the use of DRBDs have been described, including tardive chorea, tardive dystonia, tardive akathisia. Background: Tardive dyskinesia and other delayed-onset abnormal involuntary movement disorders may occur as a result of the use of psychotropic drugs. A distinction is usually made between classic tardive dyskinesia (TD) (oro-buccal-lingual-facial) and tardive dystonia, tardive tremor (TT), tardive akathisia, and other related syndromes

Define tardive dyskinesia. tardive dyskinesia synonyms, tardive dyskinesia pronunciation, tardive dyskinesia translation, English dictionary definition of tardive dyskinesia. tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, dystonia, Huntington's disease, familial tremor, restless legs syndrome, myoclonus, Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis. S/E of Antipsychotics Anticholinergic s/s, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia,sedation, neurological changes, EPS effects: pseudoparkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, NMS, agranulocytosis. Nursing Considerations Assess/test for reality orientation Do not hesitate to ask questions about hallucinations, SI, H Tardive syndromes are movement disorders resulting from chronic treatment with neuroleptics. The phenomenological spectrum of tardive syndromes is wide, including tardive dyskinesia or oro-bucco-lingual stereotypy, tardive akathisia, tardive dystonia, tardive tics, tardive tremor, tardive myoclonus, and drug-induced parkinsonism Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a condition where we have a limited understanding of the cause and of management. The delayed-onset movements can occur due to prolonged exposure to dopamine receptor-blocking agents (DRBAs). They can be physically disabling and lead to ridicule and stigmatization. TD also interferes with treatment adherence

Tardive Dyskinesia: Overview, Pathophysiology, Etiolog

• May coexist with negative symptoms and tardive dyskinesia 18. • Mechanism Of Akathesia: - Due to dopamine receptor blockade in brain areas other than the striatum. -When akathisia occurs alone in the absence of Parkinsonian symptoms, it may be due to dopaminergic blockade in the mesocortical tract rather than in the nigrostriatal pathway Summary: One hundred patients with persistent tardive dyskinesia (TD) manifested five principal tardive syndromes: classic TD, tardive dystonia, tardive akathisia, tardive Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), and tardive complex (simultaneous presence of three or more movement disorders). Evidence of classic TD was present in all but three.

Drug-Induced Movement Disorders: A Prime

Breaking Barriers and Improving Treatment Outcomes inAntipsychoticsPPT - Movement Disorders General Overview PowerPoint