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Stimulus diffusion diagram

Diffusion Model - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

stimulus diffusion. a third form of expansion diffusion. Hieracchical diffusion. a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by trickling down from larger to smaller adoption units. Diagrams. Flashcards. Mobile. Help. Sign up. Help Center. Honor Code. Community Guidelines. Teachers. About. Company. Blog. Press Lexical diffusion is the hypothesis that a sound change is an abrupt change that spreads gradually across the words in a language to which it is applicable. It contrasts with the Neogrammarian view that a sound change results from phonetically-conditioned articulatory drift acting uniformly on all applicable words, which implies that sound changes are regular, with exceptions attributed to. A) Simple Diffusion • Small molecules pass directly through the phospholipid by-layer (e.g. CO 2, H 2O, O 2) (Figure 4.3a) Rate depends on: 1) Molecule size 2) Concentration gradient 3) Lipid solubilit The spread of an idea/trait/concept through a group of people or an area equally without regard to social class, economic position or position of power. Stimulus Diffusion. The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. relocation diffusion. the spread of an idea through physical movement of people. In stimulus diffusion, a trend or innovative idea diffuses from its hearth to outward locations, but the trend is changed by its new adopters. In other words, this diffusion occurs when the trend spreads to a new location and changes in its new location or context. For example, McDonald's food chain serving different menus in different.

All three components are stimulus locked and thus, within the context of a neural integrator (Shadlen and Newsome, 2001; Mazurek et al., 2003; Huk and Shadlen, 2005) or diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978; Luce, 1986; Smith and Ratcliff, 2004; Palmer et al., 2005), all components, including the late one, are unlikely to represent the process of. We explore the parameter space of the uncoupled ML model and, based on the bifurcation diagram (as a function of stimulus current), we analyze the 1D diffusion dynamics in three regimes: phasic spiking, coexistence states (tonic spiking and phasic spiking exist together), and a quiescent state Stimulus diffusion is when an idea, principle or innovation underlying a phenomenon spreads to a small portion of a population, even though the phenomenon itself may not be diffused. This typically occurs when, due to cultural differences, certain aspects of a phenomenon become diffused as opposed to the phenomenon as a whole. An example of. a- is the highest intensity of stimulus that causes pain b- is the lowest intensity of stimulus that causes pain c- differs markedly among different individuals d- is elevated by substance P 5) Fast pain differs from slow pain in :- a- being transmitted in the dorsal column pathway b- evoking a depressor autonomic reaction c- having a sharp qualit Simple diffusion does not require energy and occurs along the concentration gradient. The concentration gradient is the process of particles moving, or diffusing, from an area of higher.

Fig. 6 illustrates the information flow diagrams obtained for the reaching task following a visual stimulus in the left visual field. In addition to being presented in the form of an information flow diagram, the connection activations can also be mapped back to the streamlines obtained in diffusion MRI The textbook definition of diffusion is the movement of molecules or particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, continuing until equilibrium is reached. The defining quality of diffusion is that it takes place because the diffusing substance exists in a higher concentration in one place and a lower concentration in another Relocation Diffusion Relocation diffusion is the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another. Relocation diffusion can help explain things like elements of culture, food, diseases, etc. Stimulus Diffusion Examples of Relocation Diffusion. On Using the diagram above, at what distance from the central business district will recreational land use begin to outbid all other land uses? The diffusion pattern of Walmart stores, which have spread from small towns to large cities throughout the United States, is an example of stimulus diffusion. Tags: Question 25 . SURVEY . 60.

Nervous system, organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors. The nervous system allows for the almost instantaneous transmission of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another. Learn about the nervous systems of different living organisms Salty taste is simply the perception of sodium ions (Na +) in the saliva.When you eat something salty, the salt crystals dissociate into the component ions Na + and Cl -, which dissolve into the saliva in your mouth.The Na + concentration becomes high outside the gustatory cells, creating a strong concentration gradient that drives the diffusion of the ion into the cells Chapter 15 . REFLEXES. I f you look at every textbook of neurophysiology and neurology in the library, you will not find many that give a definition of the term reflex.It is difficult to define the term in a way that includes everything we call a reflex, yet says anything that allows one to decide if any particular event is a reflex

decision making timing diagram task difficulty perceptual categorization behavioral sytems cognitive neural representation decision accuracy neural correlate diffusion model decision difficulty single-trial analysis component activity stimulus presentation inherent task difficulty eeg component neural resource decision difficulty component. Diffusion is the passive transport of substances other than water across a cell membrane. Cell membranes are selectively permeable to various substances. Understand and diagram how materials move into and out of cells in the processes of osmosis, diffusion, and selective permeabilit

Using a cued paradigm, we show that we can identify a component in the EEG that reflects the inherent task difficulty and not simply a correlation with the stimulus. We find that this decision difficulty component arises ≈220 ms after stimulus presentation, between two EEG components that are predictive of decision accuracy [an early. A stimulus is received by the dendrites of a nerve cell.This causes some Na + channels to open, and the diffusion influx of Na + ions starts to drive the potential of the interior more positive. The nerve cells are sensitive to external stimuli, but if such stimuli do not cause the potential to rise to the threshold level, the cell will tend to settle back down to equilibrium Facilitated diffusion is the diffusion of solutes through transport proteins in the plasma membrane. Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport. The stimulus may be chemical or electrical signals, temperature, or mechanical force, depending on the type of gated channel. For example, the sodium gated channels of a nerve cell are. Stimulus, contagious, and hierarchical diffusion are all kinds of expansion diffusion. Expansion diffusion is when innovations spread to new places while staying strong in their original locations. For example, Islam has spread throughout the world, yet stayed strong in the Middle East, where it was founded

Introduction - Lecture Notes - CSU

  1. Diagram 5 Depolarization Na ions diffuse in - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Na gates open in response K gates close stopping the +++++ to a stimulus or chemical diffusion of K out of the cell. This results in more positive ions inside the cell and negative outside c) Refractory Period (Repolarization) see diagram
  2. • ion concentration difference across membrane creates a diffusion gradient • ions flow, creating an electric field that opposes flow, until an • many individual sense receptors that respond to a stimulus block diagram for muscle-length control system note features of ypp such as pressure, temperature, touch, or pai
  3. 5 Different factors affect the rate of diffusion of molecules across a membrane. Which row represents changes to factors that will increase the rate of diffusion? concentration gradient across D stimulus 26 The diagram shows a synapse in a reflex arc. PQ What are the identities of the two neurones and in which direction does the.
  4. A They always result in the same response to the same stimulus. B They are learned responses. C They are slower than voluntary responses. D They never use voluntary muscles. 25 The diagram shows the first part of a kidney tubule and its blood supply. During filtration, protein molecules do not pass through the wall of the glomerulus
  5. Propagation definition the act of propagating. Propagation doesnt decrease or affect the quality of the action potential in any way so that the target tissue gets the same impulse no matter how far they are from neuronal body. The act of reproducing or the condition or process of being reproduced

In this article we will discuss about the five main sensory organs of fishes with its respectively functions:- 1. The Eye 2. The Inner Ear 3. Lateral Line System 4. The Olfactory Organs 5. Cutaneous Senses. 1. The Eye: The fish eye is modified for the vision in air as well as in water (a) Receptor and Stimulus: The olfactory sense-organ is a membrane lining the nasal cavity and composed of a layer of cylindrical cells whose outer ends are exposed to currents of air. It is stimulated by minute chemical particles of matter afloat in the air. The stimulus is some vapour or gas or odoriferous particles dissolved in the air Simple diffusion is the process by which solutes are moved along a concentration gradient in a solution or across a semipermeable membrane. Simple diffusion is carried out by the actions of hydrogen bonds forming between water molecules and solutes. Water molecules move in to surround individual solute molecules, which maximizes hydrogen bonding

According to the presently accepted model, ap­plication of a stimulus to the neuron is followed by the rapid diffusion of Na + across the axolemma from the exterior into the axoplasm. The unusually rapid in­ward diffusion of Na + is apparently due to a transient increase in the size of the pores or gates in the plasma membrane permeable. A Mass Communication Model of Stimulus Response Relationships: An Experiment in Leaflet Message Diffusion' MELVIN L. DE FLEUR, Indiana University The present study attempts to provide a tested hypothesis relating the intensity of a mass communications message stimulus to the degree to which it can be spread through a community population. In. Action potential curve and phases (diagram) Hypopolarization is the initial increase of the membrane potential to the value of the threshold potential. The threshold potential opens voltage-gated sodium channels and causes a large influx of sodium ions. This phase is called the depolarization. During depolarization, the inside of the cell.

In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is presented immediately before an unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov would sound a tone (like ringing a bell) and then give the dogs the meat powder (Figure 2). The tone was the neutral stimulus (NS), which is a stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response. Prior to conditioning, the dogs did not. Q1. Diagrams A, B and C show cells from different parts of the human body, all drawn to the same scale. (a) Which cell, A, B or C, appears to have adaptations to increase diffusion into or out of the cell? Give one reason for your choice. (1) (b) (i) Cell C is found in the pancreas. Name one useful substance produced by the pancreas. (1) (ii) Use information from the diagram to explain how. 2. Greiner's Equential Models, and . 3. Leavitt's System Model . These are discussed in seriatim. Lewin's Model: Lewin's model is based on premises that before actually introducing a change organisation needs to be prepared for change, motivated to change and established and integrated the change into behaviours of organisation Accordingly, Lewin has nomenclature these steps as. Diffusion imaging can be used to estimate the routes taken by fiber pathways connecting different regions of the living brain. This approach has already supplied novel insights into in vivo human brain anatomy. For example, by detecting where connection patterns change, one can define anatomical borders between cortical regions or subcortical nuclei in the living human brain for the first time. Using the information form section 11.1 and the figure on the previous page, identify the divisions of the nervous system on the image below. (You should use the same answers from the previous image as the ansers for the diagram.) The division of the nervous system (8 pts.

A. the diffusion of sodium ions into the axon B. the diffusion of potassium ions into the axon C. the active transport of sodium ions out of the axon D. the active transport of potassium ions out of the axon 24. What is the function of hydrolytic enzymes in the synaptic cleft? A. to increase the threshold leve Diffusion is the passive transport of substances other than water across a cell membrane. Cell membranes are selectively permeable to various substances. Understand and diagram how materials move into and out of cells in the processes of osmosis, diffusion, and selective permeabilit Cellular diffusion is the process that causes molecules to move in and out of a cell. Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. When there is a higher concentration of molecules outside of a cell, then more molecules enter the cell than leave. When there is a higher concentration of molecules inside of a.

diffusion model Laboratory for Intelligent Imaging and

What is Cultural Diffusion? Types & Examples Study Guide

Chapter 13 . SYNAPSES. T he nervous system consists of billions of neurons, each one an individual cell, receiving signals from some other cells and generating signals of its own to be sent to other cells. We consider here how these signals are transferred from one neuron to another. In most cases, there is a gap between neurons that must be bridged in order for transmission to continue. Nerve Impulse Transmission across Synapse. Synapse: the junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and dendrites, cell body or axon of another neuron is called synapse. The neuromuscular junction is also known as synapse. Synaptic knob: the swelling terminal of axon or dendrites is known as synaptic knob If a stimulus on the receptor portion of a The diagram above shows the typical pathway of information flow in a simple reflex arc in an organism. Diffusion of a neurotransmitter B) Active transport of sodium C) Propagation of an action potentia ICSE Biology Previous year Question Paper 2018 Solved for Class 10 General Instructions: Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately. You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes. This time is to be spent in reading the Question Paper. The time given at the head of [ Insulin Synthesis and Secretion. Insulin is a small protein, with a molecular weight of about 6000 Daltons. It is composed of two chains held together by disulfide bonds

Insulin acts at multiple steps in carbohydrate metabolism. Its effect on facilitated diffusion of glucose into fat and muscle cells via modulation of GLUT 4 translocation has been discussed. Glycogen synthesis is increased, and glycogen breakdown decreased, by dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase kinase respectively nervous system - nervous system - The ionic basis of electrical signals: Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that gain an electrical charge by losing or acquiring electrons. For example, in the reaction that forms salt from sodium and chlorine, each sodium atom donates an electron, which is negatively charged, to a chlorine atom. The result is sodium chloride (NaCl), composed of one positively.

Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous Syste

The described embodiments may provide a chemical detection circuit. The chemical detection circuit may comprise a column of chemically-sensitive pixels. Each chemically-sensitiv The Interactive Fly Drosophila Mushroom Bodies Sites for formation and retrieval of memories. Mushroom Body For a review of mushroom body structure and function see Griffith, L. C. (2014). A big picture of a small brain by diffusion through the capillary walls • A stimulus causes a reaction that opposes the acting stimulus • Increased CO 2 causes increased pulmonary ventilation, which decreases CO 2 • Decreased arterial pressure activates the baroreceptor system which act

types of diffusion Flashcards Quizle

The diagram shows the structures involved in this response. (a)€€€€ Use the correct word or phrase from the diagram to complete each sentence. €€€€€ The stimulus is detected by the.. (1) (ii)€€€€ Impulses travel to the central nervous system along a diffusion of the chemical across the synapse 1 [9] € (1) A stimulus from a sensory cell or another neuron causes the target cell to depolarize toward the threshold potential. (2) If the threshold of excitation is reached, all Na+ channels open and the membrane depolarizes. (3) At the peak action potential, K+ channels open and K+ begins to leave the cell. At the same time, Na+ channels close Diagram of a sensory neuron with sensory information being detected by sensory receptors located at the incoming end of the neuron. when a stimulus begins, then become 'silent' and fire again briefly when the stimulus ends (e.g., diffusion from the circulating air in the external environment (see figure at left). Glands tha Diffusion: ¾Diffusion is the Diffusion is the net movementnet movement of a of a substance from an area where substance from an area where itit has a has a higher concentration to an area where it 20 has a lower concentration i.e. down its concentration gradient. ¾Caused by the constant random motion of all atoms and molecules. 21 Objective 16 contagious diffusion, relocation diffusion, expansion diffusion, stimulus diffusion, hierarchical diffusion. Trending Questions . How does the diagram of diffusion look

A stimulus will start the depolarization of the membrane, and voltage-gated channels will result in further depolarization followed by repolarization of the membrane. A slight overshoot of hyperpolarization marks the end of the action potential. While an action potential is in progress, another cannot be generated under the same conditions Postsynaptic Potentials. Postsynaptic potentials are changes in membrane potential that move the cell away from its resting state. For our purposes, postsynaptic potentials are measured in the dendrites and cell bodies. Ion channels that are opened by a stimulus allow brief ion flow across the membrane

Stimulus Signal Response dentify at least three similarities in the two types of feedback mechanisms in Model 1.3. I Positive and Negative - Something that causes a reaction to occur - message sent i.e. phone call - reaction to a stimulus i.e. move away from a hot object Three similarities: Stimulus, signal, respons Diffusion is widely used in various fields such as biology, physics, chemistry, etc. Diffusion can be classified into two main types: Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Simple diffusion A process in which the substance moves through a semipermeable membrane or in a solution without any help from transport proteins

Lexical diffusion - Wikipedi

1. See labeled diagram: FIGURE 1 2. See labeled diagrams. In vivo, Bowman's capsule is in contact with a portion of the distal tubule rather than directed away from it as shown. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is made up of a patch of cells on the distal tubule (macula densa) and a patch of cells on the afferent arteriol The value of resting potential is between - 60mV to - 100mV. The value remains constant until an external factor disturbs the cell membrane. At the resting state, the cell is polarised. Consider an example of our blood plasma (serum). If sodium ion concentration increases, renal damage and dehydration occur Any stimulus beyond the threshold can initiate an impulse. When such stimulus is applied in the resting neuron, it opens the sodium channel. Now the permeability of Na+ ion suddenly increases at the point of stimulus causing depolarization. The diffusion of Na+ ion increases by 10 times from outside to inside

Diffusion Flashcards Quizle

Stimulus → receptor → coordinator → effector → response The diagram summarises how information flows from receptors to effectors in the nervous system. Receptors are groups of specialised. Finally, stimulus diffusion is when a cultural trend spreads, but is changed by those adopting the idea. For example, many in the United States practice yoga, but make use of it in a different way. The diffusion constant D U,V [with units (length) 2 /time] is an important parameter indicative of the diffusion mobility. For a multi-component system, the higher the diffusivity, the faster the species diffuse into each other. Here, f U,V (U,V) is typically a nonlinear function of concentrations U and V. Solving a pattern-forming system in the form of Eq 1 The diagram shows cells from a plant leaf. Which structure contains a high concentration of magnesium? D A B C 2 Which of these processes will always occur down a concentration gradient? active transport diffusion osmosis A key B = yes C = no D 3 A student cuts out four cylinders of potato. Each cylinder is 30 mm long

What is the Difference Between Expansion Diffusion and

Diagram Procedure for showing sequence numbers in the diagram. In order to show or hide stimulus sequence number, Select the diagram in the [model explorer] or in the [main window] And configure [ShowSequenceNumber] property of diagram to true or false. When [ShowSequenceNumber] is false, sequence diagram is shown as follows mass-conserving reaction-diffusion (2C-MCRD) systems and based on simple geometric structures in the phase space of the reaction kinetics. From these concepts, general geo-metric criteria for lateral (Turing) instability and stimulus-induced pattern formation emerge and allow us to obtain the features and bifurcations of patterns from graphical. 11 Molecules can pass between cells by diffusion, osmosis or active transport. (a) Complete the table, which compares these three processes. (6) Diffusion Osmosis Active transport ATP required (yes/no) Direction of movement in relation to concentration gradient (b) Explain how temperature affects the rate of diffusion of molecules between cells. The stimulus-coupled reorganization of Them1 provides fine-tuning of thermogenesis and energy expenditure. b Schematic diagram of the experimental design in resulted in the diffusion of. 4 The diagram shows a magnified image of a human liver cell with a mitochondrion labelled. The A 0.002 mm B 0.02 mm C 0.2 mm D 2 mm 5 What would increase the rate of diffusion of oxygen into an animal cell? A decreasing the concentration gradient between the inside of the cell and the outside D stimulus 26 The diagram shows a synapse in.

Neural Representation of Task Difficulty and Decision

Diffusion vs. Osmosis Review Group sort. by Andrewtm. G7 Science. Examples of maintaining Stimulus/Response Group Sort Group sort. by Jacksonh. G7 Science. Muscular System by Amandaowens1. G7 Science. L10 L9 - Medicial Greek Forms Labelled diagram. by Jennifer73. G7 Science Reading. Genetics Match up. by Michelle183. G7 Biology Science. The size of nerve impulse remains the same, but its generation and transmission rate differs according to the cell type. The layer of a fatty acid substance called myelin sheath accelerates the rate of signal conduction (up to 20 times faster).. In this context, we will learn the definition, conduction mechanism (continuous and saltatory), and the steps involved in nerve impulse transmission Perceptual decisions requiring the comparison of spatially distributed stimuli that are fixated sequentially might be influenced by fluctuations in visual attention. We used two psychophysical tasks with human subjects to investigate the extent to which visual attention influences simple perceptual choices, and to test the extent to which the attentional Drift Diffusion Model (aDDM) provides a. Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is a disease caused by a failure of glucose homeostasis. There are two forms of the disease. In type 1 diabetes (30%) (also known as insulin-dependent or early-onset diabetes) there is a severe insulin deficiency due to an autoimmune reaction, killing off the β-cells.This appears t

Diffusion dynamics of a conductance-based neuronal

In this article, we will learn about the Habitat, structure, nutrition, characteristics, reproduction, locomotion of the Amoeba cell with diagram. Amoeba cell also known as the ameba or amoeboid. Amoeba is a unicellular eukaryotic organism which can alter their shape by extending and retracting pseudopods. The term Amoeba came from the Greek. (b) The diagram given below is that of a developing human foetus. Answer the questions that follow: (i) Label the parts numbered 1 to 3 in the diagram. (ii) Mention any two functions of the part labelled 2 in the diagram. (iii) Explain the significance of the part numbered 3 in the diagram. (iv) Define the term 'Gestation' An action potential (AP) is the mode through which a neuron transports electrical signals. It is defined as a brief change in the voltage across the membrane due to the flow of certain ions into and out of the neuron. In this article we will discuss how an action potential is generated and how conduction of an action potential occurs

What Are the Types of Expansion Diffusion? Healthfull

Pavlovian Conditioning. With its genesis in Pavlov's dogs experiment, Pavlovian conditioning is defined as a form of behavioral psychology (or behaviorism) in which an animal, or human, can be conditioned to respond in a certain way to a stimulus that, had it not been conditioned, should in no way be associated with the act in question The primary chemical stimulus for breathing is the concentration of a. carbon monoxide in the blood b. carbon dioxide in the blood c. oxygen in the blood d. carbonic acid in the blood 13. During internal and external respiration, gases move by a. osmosis b. active transport c. diffusion d. endocytosis 14. Most oxygen in the blood is transporte

Simple Diffusion: Definition & Examples - Video & Lesson

diffusion. exocytosis. active transport. 9. Most oxygen in the blood is transported as gas dissolved in plasma. as oxyhemoglobin. as carboxyhemoglobin. as bicarbonate. 10. The primary chemical stimulus for breathing is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the blood. carbon dioxide in the blood. oxygen in the blood. carbonic acid in the blood. The endocrine system is a control system of the human body much like the nervous system. The endocrine system produces chemical messages in the form of hormones, whereas the nervous system produces electrical messages. The endocrine system is made up of lots of specialised endocrine glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream EZ-diffusion model analysis further indicated that such slow performance in RP patients relates to the long non-decision time for each size stimulus and slow drift rate v for large stimulus. The similar phenomenon, also observed in myopic patients, was thought to be associated with the narrowed visual perception field at large eccentricity. © Facebook Technologies, LLC Media in category Psychological diagrams. The following 200 files are in this category, out of 270 total. (previous page) ( next page) 1 1 twoRouteModelInReading.JPG 395 × 500; 91 KB. 1 2 TwoRouteModelIrregularWords.JPG 353 × 350; 55 KB

Chapter 1 - AP Hug with Kuenker at Evergreen High School

White matter information flow mapping from diffusion MRI

diffusion is a major method of transportation. Diffusion of water across a semipermeable draw a diagram showing the location of endocrine glands in the body and describe the functions reflex action stimulus, response, impulse, receptor Pacinian corpuscles have a single axonal fiber at the center surrounded by 15-20 lamella arranged in a concentric pattern. The entire structure is also surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. A fluid of certain nature is also present in between the lamella of the corpuscle. The central fiber is unmyelinated near its tip Both kinds of stimulus electrodes were shielded with a graphite spray. Constant current pulses were delivered at a rate of l/s. ACh was ejected from electrodes filled with 2 M ACh (50 to 100 Ma) with currents from 0 to 100 nA. Diffusion from the electrode was diminished by 10 to 15 nA of opposite polarity

SOL LSDoITPoMS - TLP Library Introduction to Anisotropy - Diffusion

diffusion for folk and for popular culture. (4 pts.) The spread of folk culture typically follows a process of relocation diffusion (migration of people bringing a cultural trait or cultural complex with them). Folk culture is transmitted more slowly and on a smaller scale than popular culture Action potentials - the rapid change in potential difference across the membrane. - caused by the change in permeability of the membrane to Na+ and K+ ions. - voltage gated channels for Na+ and K+ ions : opens or closes depending on the potential difference across the membrane. When a receptor receives a stimulus, this can reduce the potential. Bifurcation diagrams depict the state space of the E-I system in terms of the mean external input currents to both subpopulations α ∈ {E, I}. (a) Bifurcation diagram of mean-field model without adaptation with up and down-states, a bistable region bi (green dashed contour) and an oscillatory region LC EI (white solid contour) Glucose and oxygen are the two components necessary for cellular aerobic respiration. This type of respiration is not the same as breathing; instead, it is a reaction through which cells extract energy from glucose. During the process, oxygen and glucose combine to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. The CO2 is then removed in the same way. Phasic dopamine (DA) release is believed to guide associative learning. Most studies have focused on projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the striatum, and the action of DA in other VTA target regions remains unclear. Using optogenetic activation of VTA projections, we examined DA function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)