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Which of the following are characteristics of cancer cells Quizlet

Orecchini A Monachella e molto altro al miglior prezzo su Stylight. Approfitta ora! Visita Stylight per trovare la più ampia scelta di orecchini a monachella Characteristics of cancer cells include all of the following except a. transformed b. show anaplasia c. expression of antigens that resemble embryonic antigens d. show cell contact inhibition e. divide without limit Which of the following characteristics is not associated with metastasis? A. The internal cytoskeleton is disorganized. B. The cancer cells lack intact actin filament bundles. C. Invasive cancer cells are sperm-shaped. D. Cancer cells produce proteinase enzymes. E. The low oxygen content in the middle of a tumor may turn on genes for angiogenesis Which of the following characteristics is not associated with metastasis? T/F: If the gene for telomerase is turned off in a cell, this is an indication this is a cancer cell. FALSE. Which of the following is not a standard therapy for cancer treatment? Quizlet Live. Quizlet Learn. Diagrams. Flashcards. Mobile. Help. Sign up. Help. Regarding the characteristics of cancer: Cells lose their anchorage dependence Endocrine signal production Cells evade apoptosis Expression of telomerase. Endocrine signal production (Autocrine signal) All of the following are correctly paired except: Down regulation of MHC: evade immune system OTHER QUIZLET SETS. Clin Med Exam: Derm. 203.

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Compared to a normal cell, a cancer cell generally divides A) ten times faster than a normal cell. B) four times faster than a normal cell. C) two times faster than a normal cell Which of the following is incorrect regarding cancer? 1. cancer cells can affect the physiology of the body's organ systems 2. cancer is a disease that is the result of an inability to regulate cell division 3. one in three females and one in two males will develop cancer in their lives 4. all of the above are correc A cancerous (malignant) cell's nucleus is larger than that of a normal cell and the cancer cell is smaller than a normal cell. The nucleus occupies much of the space within the cancer cell, creating a large nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. Which of the following does the nurse recognize as a primary cancer prevention strategy Which one of the following characteristics of the immune system distinguishes antibody-mediated from cell-mediated immunity? A. The cells are called leukocytes B. The responses are specific to foreign invaders C. The long-term immunity can be transferred from person to person D. The cells arise from pluripotent stem cells

Characteristics of cancer cells Which of the following characteristics are typical of cancer cells? More adherent than normal cells Loss of cell cycle control Dedifferentiated Lack contact inhibition Decreased mutation rate Can induce blood vessel formatio

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  1. Cancer is the result of mutated DNA with uncontrolled cell division (mitosis). Cancer cells have no death that is no programmed cell death (apoptosis) occurs. In order to metastasize that is to spread from one part of the body to other parts of the body, blood vessels are important. And, also for uncontrolled growth, continuous supply of.
  2. Briefly describe tumor suppressor genes. Codes for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis. True/false: Tumors consist of cells in a single layer that exhibit contact inhibition. false. The study of cancer is called _______. oncology
  3. Characteristics of Cancer Cells Cancer cells grow and divide at an abnormally rapid rate, are poorly differentiated, and have abnormal membranes, cytoskeletal proteins, and morphology. The abnormality in cells can be progressive with a slow transition from normal cells to benign tumors to malignant tumors

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Transcribed image text: Classify the following characteristics of cells as occurring in a typical cell cycle or occurring in a cancerous cell cycle. Enters cell cycle approximately 70 times Produces other differentiated cells Checkpoints occur at various points in cell cycle Can result from mutations due to environmental assaults Apoptosis occurs when cells become worn out or mutated Lacks. Cancer Cells Characteristics, Vs Normal cells, Types and Microscopy Overview: Cancer and Cancer Cells. Essentially, cancer is a disease of mitosis. As such, it occurs when normal cells are transformed into cancerous cells and proliferate uncontrollably. Cancer cells, therefore, are normal cells whose genes (several genes) have been damaged.

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Chapter 19: Cancer Medicine (Oncology) A. Identify the following characteristics of malignant tumors based on their definitions as given below. Word parts are given as clues: 1. loss of differentiation of cells and reversion to a more primitive cell type: ana_____ 2. extending beyond the normal tissue boundaries: in_____ 3. having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue: in_____ 4. When cancer cells break away from a tumor, they can travel to other areas through either the bloodstream or the lymph system. If they travel through the lymph system, the cancer cells may end up in lymph nodes. Most of the escaped cancer cells die or are killed before they can start growing somewhere else. But one or two might settle in a new.

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Cancer cells spread through the body in a series of steps. These steps include: growing into, or invading, nearby normal tissue; moving through the walls of nearby lymph nodes or blood vessels; traveling through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to other parts of the body; stopping in small blood vessels at a distant location, invading the blood vessel walls, and moving into the surrounding. Cancer cells can divide many more times than this, largely because they express an enzyme called telomerase, which reverses the wearing down of chromosome ends that normally happens during each cell division. Cancer cells are also different from normal cells in other ways that aren't directly cell cycle-related Other warning signs are: A sore that doesn't heal. Spread of pigment from the border of a spot into surrounding skin. Redness or a new swelling beyond the border of the mole. Change in sensation, such as itchiness, tenderness, or pain. Change in the surface of a mole - scaliness, oozing, bleeding, or the appearance of a lump or bump For most women, pre-cancerous cells will go away without any treatment. But, in some women pre-cancers turn into true (invasive) cancers. Treating cervical pre-cancers can prevent almost all cervical cancers. The goal of cervical cancer screening is to find pre-cancer or cancer early when it is more treatable and curable. Regular screening can. Definition. Sister chromatids present. Spindle fibers attached to kinectochores. Condensed chromosomes. Term. At the end of cell division, the cell ______ is the divider across a plant cell that makrs the location for new cell walls and plasma membranes. Definition

Attached cell lines can be classified as 1) endothelial such as BAE-1, 2) epithelial such as HeLa, 3) neuronal such as SH-SY5Y, or 4) fibroblast such as MRC-5. Figure 1. Examples of attached cell types. Cells are classified in 4 different cell type categories based on overall morphology 1) Epithelial 2) Endothelial 3) Neuronal or 4) Fibroblast Characteristics of tumours • Cancer phenotype and stem cells Cancer cells 1. disobey the growth control - proliferate rapidly 2. escape from death signals - immortality 3. imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death - excessive growth 4. lose differentiation properties - no function 5. are unstable - newer mutations 6.

The key difference between cancer cells and normal cells is that the cancer cells divide uncontrollably while normal cells divide in an orderly manner.. Normal cells divide in an orderly way to produce more cells only when the body needs them. Thus, it is a normal process of cell division that is essential for the growth, development and repair of the body Ability to Metastasize (Spread) Normal cells stay in the area of the body where they belong. For example, lung cells remain in the lungs. Some cancer cells may lack the adhesion molecules that cause stickiness, and are able to detach and travel via the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other regions of the body—they have the ability to metastasize Most naked mAbs attach to antigens on cancer cells, but some work by binding to antigens on other, non-cancerous cells, or even free-floating proteins. Naked mAbs can work in different ways. Some boost a person's immune response against cancer cells by attaching to them and acting as a marker for the body's immune system to destroy them Carcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in cells that make up the skin or the tissue lining organs, such as the liver or kidneys.. Like other types of cancer, carcinomas are abnormal cells that.

For recurrent cancer, treatment options depend on how the cancer was first treated and the characteristics of the cancer mentioned above, such as ER, PR, and HER2. Descriptions of the common types of treatments used for early-stage and locally advanced breast cancer are listed below The Cells of the Immune System. A number of different cells work together within the immune system to fight infections and disease. Each type of cell plays an important role in identifying, marking, and destroying harmful cells that enter or develop in the body. B cells release antibodies to defend against harmful, invading cells

Chapter 20 - Cancer Flashcards Quizle

Cancer in the basal cells is an epithelial cancer found on areas of the body that are frequently exposed to sunlight. Different types of epithelial tissue, collectively known as the epithelium, cover all the organs of the body, inside and out.One of their primary functions is to provide protection for the organ they enclose The cells are capable of rapid division, which is the process that creates new cells. Many epithelial cells in different parts of the body are lost due to friction or exposure to harmful substances. The skin, for instance, constantly produces new cells to replace the dead cells closest to the outer surface Certain genes control the life cycle—the growth, function, division, and death—of a cell. When these genes are damaged, the balance between normal cell growth and death is lost. Cancer cells are caused by DNA damage and out-of-control cell growth. The following is a partial list of factors known to damage DNA and increase the risk of cancer Cell Biology of Cancer. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. It is the smallest structure of the body capable of performing all of the processes that define life. Each of the organs in the body, such as the lung, breast, colon, and brain, consists of specialized cells that carry out the organ's functions such as the transportation of oxygen, digestion of nutrients, excretion of waste.

Cancer Classification. Cancers are classified in two ways: by the type of tissue in which the cancer originates (histological type) and by primary site, or the location in the body where the cancer first developed.This section introduces you to the first method: cancer classification based on histological type Cancer Stem Cells. What is a stem cell? A stem cell is a special cell type that has both the ability to reproduce exact copies of itself (also called self-renewal) and the ability to change (differentiate) into one of the many specialized cell types in the body.Examples of specialized cells that arise from stem cells include nerves, muscles and the cells lining our digestive system The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and. Cancer cells can hide in plain sight. Cancer cells, although different in many ways from other cells in the body, are known to evade our immune system or suppress key elements of the usual immune response. In some cases aggressive cytotoxic (killer) T cells — the immune cells that locate and kill invading pathogens — actually infiltrate tumors Benign tumors also have normal cells and grow in an ordered manner. However a benign tumor has no physiological function and is therefore considered as an unnecessary growth in the body. A malignant tumor does not have normal cells. These 'cancer' cells are different from normal cells in the following ways : Irregular size of cell and nucleus

Chapter 19 Cancer Flashcards Quizle

  1. Skin cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in the United States. The three main types of skin cancer are called basal cell, squamous cell, and malignant melanoma. Basal and squamous are most often associated with areas of high sun exposure and are usually curable through removing the lesion. Melanoma is the least common of the 3 types of.
  2. Basal cell carcinoma, which is also called basal cell skin cancer, is the most common form of skin cancer, accounting for about 80 percent of all cases. ( 3 ) Rates of basal cell carcinoma have.
  3. *Tumor grade facts medical author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Tumor grade is a classification system based on the appearance of tumor cells under the microscope. Cancer cells that are described as low-grade (grade 1) have an appearance similar to normal cells.; High-grade (grade 3) cancer cells appear distinctly abnormal under the microscope. Low-grade tumors are often referred to as well.

Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body's cells, as you breathe out.Each lung has sections called lobes.The left lung has two lobes Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: APA. Abcam. (2020, January 30). Antigen Characteristics Stage 0 means there's no cancer, only abnormal cells with the potential to become cancer. This is also called carcinoma in situ. Stage I means the cancer is small and only in one area Patients with complaints lasting longer than 2-4 weeks should be referred promptly to an appropriate specialist to obtain a definitive diagnosis. If the specialist detects a persistent oral lesion, a biopsy should be performed without delay. The many signs and symptoms of oral cancer are usually divided into early and late presentation

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However, the migration and invasion of residual HCT116 cancer cells were only significantly decreased following silencing of LINC00152 expression. LINC00152 may therefore be a potential biomarker involved in modulation of the biological characteristics of residual CRC cells following chemoradiotherapy Muscle Tissue. Muscle tissue is composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the body parts. The tissue is highly cellular and is well supplied with blood vessels. The cells are long and slender so they are sometimes called muscle fibers, and these are usually arranged in bundles or layers that are surrounded by connective tissue Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a cancer of B lymphocytes. Almost all lymphocytes begin growing in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. T cells leave the bone marrow before they are completely matured, and finish maturing in the thymus gland. B cells instead continue to develop and mature in the bone marrow and lymph nodes Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy) As described (more briefly) in the Hallmarks of Cancer section, metastasis is responsible for the great majority of deaths in cancer patients.This section details the steps by which cancer cells spread around the body and form new growths. Further information on the topics on this page can also be found in most introductory Biology textbooks, we recommend Campbell Biology, 11th edition.1

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Cancer Flashcards Quizle

Endothelial Cells Line All Blood Vessels. The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells (Figure 22-22).The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina Skin Cancer Overview. Skin cancer is the most common of all human cancers. In 2020, more than 100,000 people in the U.S. are expected to be diagnosed with some type of the disease. Nearly 7,000. Activating T-cells against cancer cells is the basis behind checkpoint inhibitors, a relatively new class of immunotherapy drugs that have recently been federally approved to treat lung cancer, melanoma and other difficult cancers. Cancer cells often evade patrolling T-cells by sending signals that make them seem harmless More than a third of US adults will get cancer. In 2018 alone, more than 1.7 million new cancer cases will be diagnosed. Earlier detection and more precise treatment options are improving outcomes for patients, but with an estimated 14 million cancer survivors living in the US, cancer recurrence remains a sizeable threat. Cancer cells, unlike the normal cells in our bodies, can grow forever

Lymphoma is cancer that begins in infection-fighting cells of the immune system, called lymphocytes. These cells are in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. The more we research on cancer cells the more we know about them. We want to find out it cancer cells divide more the normal cells. III. Hypothesis. I believe cancer cells will look different than normal cells because they act differently. Cancer cells may damage genes. Cancer cells will divide more rapidly than normal cells because cancer. The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor, and progestins in higher.

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Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.The word is from the Greek κρυπτός (kryptos), meaning hidden, and ὄρχις (orchis), meaning testicle.It is the most common birth defect of the male genital tract. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born with at least one undescended testis Poliovirus, the causative agent of polio (also known as poliomyelitis), is a serotype of the species Enterovirus C, in the family of Picornaviridae.. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid.The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA (+ssRNA) genome that is about 7500 nucleotides long. The viral particle is about 30 nm in diameter with icosahedral symmetry Symptoms following high-fat intake is usually associated with gallbladder disease. Projectile vomiting is usually related to increased intracranial pressure. Vomiting blood can be associated with esophagitis, erosion of the esophagus, bleeding esophageal varices, or esophageal cancer Answers. A. It binds GTP in performing its normal function. answer-incorrect. B. In a healthy cell it breaks up and releases GTP, allowing the cell to stop dividing. answer-incorrect. C. It is involved in many types of cancer, including pancreatic, colon and ovarian

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  1. Cancer Characteristics: Cell division is a normal process that the body uses to create new cells and to repair the body. Cancer cells result from errors made during this replication process
  2. One cell divides into 2 identical cells, then 2 cells divide into 4, and so on. In adults, cells normally grow and divide to make more cells only when the body needs them, such as to replace aging or damaged cells. But cancer cells are different. Cancer cells have gene mutations that turn the cell from a normal cell into a cancer cell
  3. The risk of ovarian cancer after breast cancer is highest in those women with a family history of breast cancer. A strong family history of breast cancer may be caused by an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, which is linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer
  4. Select all of the following that are characteristics of cancer cells. Appear irregular in shape Have highly regulated cell division Lack specialization Have a fixed life span and eventually undergo Have large dark nuclei Appear small and regular in shape apoptosis Loses function compared to surrounding tissue Highly specialized Become immortal Rese
  5. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer Worldwide. Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. In 2018, there were 18.1 million new cases and 9.5 million cancer-related deaths worldwide. By 2040, the number of new cancer cases per year is expected to rise to 29.5 million and the number of cancer-related deaths to 16.4 million
  6. The cells of a multicellular organism are members of a highly organized community. The number of cells in this community is tightly regulated—not simply by controlling the rate of cell division, but also by controlling the rate of cell death. If cells are no longer needed, they commit suicide by activating an intracellular death program. This process is therefore called programmed cell death.
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Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells. In a healthy person, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. Enlarge. Anatomy of the bone. The bone is made up of compact bone, spongy bone, and. They are usually less well differentiated than normal cells or benign tumor cells. In a specific tissue, malignant cells usually exhibit the characteristics of rapidly growing cells, that is, a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, prominent nucleoli, many mitoses, and relatively little specialized structure Well-known examples include: Tobacco. If you smoke, you are more likely to develop cancer of the lung, mouth, throat, oesophagus, bladder and pancreas. Smoking is thought to cause about 1 in 4 of all cancers. About 1 in 10 smokers die from lung cancer. The heavier you smoke, the greater the risk

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Solved: Characteristics Of Cancer Cells Which Of The Follo

Why cancer cells tend to spread to the parts of the body they do. Where a cancer starts is linked to where it will spread. Most cancer cells that break free from the primary tumor are carried in the blood or lymph system until they get trapped in the next downstream organ or set of lymph nodes. This explains why breast cancer often. However, cancer cells have the ability to keep those checkpoints active, suppressing the immune system so the cancer can grow and thrive. Cemiplimab blocks a particular checkpoint called PD-1 from working, so the immune system can release massive amounts of T cells to attack and kill cancer cells. Find out more about cemiplimab. When it's use The Basics About Skin Cancer . By definition, skin cancer is the abnormal growth of skin cells. Two types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, develop primarily on areas of sun-exposed skin, including the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, and hands.   It is also common on the legs of women In cell-mediated immune responses, the second class of adaptive immune response, activated T cells react directly against a foreign antigen that is presented to them on the surface of a host cell. The T cell, for example, might kill a virus-infected host cell that has viral antigens on its surface, thereby eliminating the infected cell before the virus has had a chance to replicate (see Figure. As we have seen, cancer cells are created from normal precursor cells via an accumulation of genetic damage. The mechanisms by which the changes are induced is varied. In a broad sense, the agents of genetic change (mutation) fall primarily into the categories described below and are discussed in depth in the following section

Leukocytes. Leukocytes or white blood cells are blood cells that play a major role in the immune response of an organism. leukocytes originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow Worldwide, the most common risk factor for liver cancer is chronic (long-term) infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These infections lead to cirrhosis of the liver and are responsible for making liver cancer the most common cancer in many parts of the world. In the US, infection with hepatitis C is the more common.

Endothelial Cells Line All Blood Vessels. The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells (Figure 22-22).The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina There are several types of squamous cell carcinoma. Some are more likely to spread than others, but in general, most share similar characteristics. The primary difference between each subtype is histological (related to the unique characteristics of the cancerous cells) Psychological stress describes what people feel when they are under mental, physical, or emotional pressure. Although it is normal to experience some psychological stress from time to time, people who experience high levels of psychological stress or who experience it repeatedly over a long period of time may develop health problems (mental and/or physical) Anyone can get skin cancer, but people with certain characteristics are at greater risk— A lighter natural skin color. Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun. Blue or green eyes. Blond or red hair. Certain types and a large number of moles. A family history of skin cancer. A personal history of skin cancer.

The main difference between cancer cells and normal cells is that the cancer cells have an uncontrolled growth and cell division whereas the growth and cell division of normal cells is controlled. Furthermore, cancer cells are immortal while normal cells undergo apoptosis when aged or damaged.. Cancer cells and normal cells are two types of cells that can occur in the body of animals or plants Cell changes and cancer. All cancers begin in cells. Our bodies are made up of more than a hundred million million (100,000,000,000,000) cells. Cancer starts with changes in one cell or a small group of cells. Usually, we have just the right number of each type of cell The cell division process occurs as an orderly progression through four different stages, known collectively as the 'cell cycle'. Many of the abnormal traits of cancer cells are due to defects in genes that control cell division. The Cell Cycle. The cell cycle consists of four stages: G1, S, G2, and M Muscle Tissue. Muscle tissue is composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the body parts. The tissue is highly cellular and is well supplied with blood vessels. The cells are long and slender so they are sometimes called muscle fibers, and these are usually arranged in bundles or layers that are surrounded by connective tissue

The following tests are sometimes used with cytogenetic testing: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a test used to detect the BCR-ABL gene and to monitor the disease during treatment. This test does not require dividing cells and can be done using a blood sample or bone marrow cells Follicular thyroid cancer is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, making up about 10 to up to 15% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinoma (also called Follicular thyroid cancer) is called a well differentiated thyroid cancer like papillary thyroid cancer, but it is typically a bit more malignant (aggressive) than papillary cancer CAR T-cell therapies exemplify a personalized approach to cancer therapy because they directly prime a patient's cells to better combat their own cancer. Thus far, this has been most successful in patients with relapsed or refractory malignancies who are resistant to treatment, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which remains. Phases of the Cell Cycle. A typical eukaryotic cell cycle is illustrated by human cells in culture, which divide approximately every 24 hours. As viewed in the microscope, the cell cycle is divided into two basic parts: mitosis and interphase.Mitosis (nuclear division) is the most dramatic stage of the cell cycle, corresponding to the separation of daughter chromosomes and usually ending with.

Benign vs. Malignant Tumors. There are two main classifications of tumors. One is known as benign and the other as malignant. A benign tumor is a tumor that does not invade its surrounding tissue. In addition, the body ' s tissue and cells, as well as cancer cells, can also have antigens on them that can be used as biological markers in lab tests to identify those specific tissues or cells Cancer.Cancer was the first human disease to be linked to epigenetics. Studies performed by Feinberg and Vogelstein in 1983, using primary human tumor tissues, found that genes of colorectal cancer cells were substantially hypomethylated compared with normal tissues. 10 DNA hypomethylation can activate oncogenes and initiate chromosome instability, whereas DNA hypermethylation initiates. Cancer Definition Cancer is not just one disease, but a large group of almost 100 diseases. Its two main characteristics are uncontrolled growth of the cells in the human body and the ability of these cells to migrate from the original site and spread to distant sites. If the spread is not controlled, cancer can result in death. Description One out of. A closing discussion can revolve around the make up the two new cancer cells as compared to the two new non-cancer cells from the previous lesson. Students should recognize that the cancer cells have damaged DNA, extra chromosomes, etc. Part 7: Modeling the Cell Cycle and Cancer. We will now model cancer by ignoring the checkpoints in the cell.